Ether & Chloroform Chronology: 1846-48

Gray = Snow's published writings

Light Blue = Snow's presentations at meetings and anesthetic administration

Dark Blue = Snow's recorded comments at meetings

Black = contextual articles, letters, editorials, minutes, etc.,

E = Snow, On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether in Surgical Operations (London: Churchill, September/October 1847).

"Medical Intelligence. Animal Magnetism Superseded-Discovery of a New Hypnopoietic [productive of sleep]." LMG 38 (1846): 1085-86. [18 December issue; "a highly respectable physician of Boston" has informed the journal of Morton's process for using ether vapor to render dental patients insensible (or intoxicated). Extracted details of a case of molar extraction in "Martin's rooms." LMG urges caution, noting that ether is a strong narcotic that "must be regarded as producing a state of temporary poisoning in which the nervous system is powerfully affected" (1086). [reprinted in its entirety in PharJ 6 (1846-47): 336-37, issue of 1 January 1847.]

"Letter from Mr. J. Robinson." MT 15 (1847): 273-74. [dated 28 December 1846; mentions that he performed dental surgery that morning with Snow in attendance.]

"The Sedative Effect of Ether Tested in the Operating Theatre of the North London Hospital." PharJ 6 (1846-47): 337-38. [issue of 1 January 1847. House surgeon sends account of two successful operations by Liston at 2:00 on Friday 18 December, including the amputation of Frederick Churchill's lower leg, at which "the vapour of ether was inhaled by means of a vessel resembling an ordinary inhaler.]

"Performance of Surgical Operations during the State of Narcotism from Ether." LMG 39 (1847): 38-39. [1 January issue; journal asserts its claim to having given first public announcement in England of the ether procedure, then follow with account of Liston's operation at Univ College Hosp on 22 Dec (?) much like that in Lancet of 2 Jan.]

"Surgical Operations Performed during Insensibility." Lancet 1 (1847): 5-9. [2 January issue; Francis Boott's submission, containing (extracts) letters from Bigelow, sr., H. J. Bigelow, and R. Liston sent to Boot, plus his cover letter which states outcome of Robinson's dental operation on Miss Lonsdale on 19 December, and three or four unsuccessful cases perhaps due to "defect in the valve of the mouthpiece" (9). Editorial- sulphuric ether. Lancet 1 (1847): 16-17. [2 January; cautious endorsement. Notes that the apparatus used by Liston was "contrived by Mr. Squires, of Oxford-street" (17).

Editorial-8 January. LMG 39 (1847): 68-69. [notes that use of ether in surgical operations "is now becoming almost universal." Mentions Fairbrother's operation in Bristol, and considers Herepath's apparatus (identical to those long used in experiments with nitrous oxide) best and simplest described to date. Long critique of the "absurd patent" claim.]

Letters to the Editor - inhalation of ether. Lancet 1 (1847): 49-51. [9 January issue. Letters from Boot, "__ __, Q. C.," Clendon (including sketch of an apparatus by Clarke, and Collyer.]

"Operations without Pain." Lancet 1 (1847): 54. [9 January: "An operation was last week performed by Mr. J. G. Lansdown, at the Bristol General Hospital, the patient being previously placed under the influence of sulphuric ether vapour. In this case, the thigh was removed without any manifestation of pain on the part of the patient. The operation appears to have been as perfect and satisfactory a test of Dr. Morton's discovery as that performed by Mr. Liston. The inhalation of ether was performed by means of an apparatus constructed by Mr. Herapath. Wine was given at intervals during the operation, and it was stated, that insensibility may be increased or diminished by administering wine and the etherous vapour alternately."]

"Pharmaceutical Society--13 January 1847." Lancet 1 (1847): 73. [16 January issue; paper by Mr. Squire describing his apparatus for administering ether. During discussion, Mr. Hooper described his apparatus, improved after suggestions by Dr. Boott and Mr. Robinson.]

"Surgical Operations with the Vapour of Ether at St. George's Hospital." LMG 39 (1847): 168. [22 January issue; two of three cases on 14 Jan were abject failures when patients could not be rendered insensible; was JS amongst the "large concourse of spectators"? If so, this would not be a hard act to follow.]

"Mr. Hooper's Ether Inhaler." Lancet 1 (1847): 77. [illus + description]

Editorial-operations without pain. Lancet 1 (1847): 74-75. [16 January issue; supports the application of ether in surgical operations, but cautious about use in midwifery and recognizes individual variations respecting insensibility; decries applications for a patent.]

"Operations without Pain." Lancet 1 (1847): 77-80. [16 January issue; case descriptions at King's College Hospital, using Hooper's apparatus, devised by Robinson, who superintended case one, perhaps the other six listed as well as those at Guy's, Westminster, and St. Thomas's. Letters from Lansdown and Fairbrother at Bristol; amputation of thigh (not in hospital?); operations on eye (using Hooper's apparatus) and teeth (using Squires' apparatus). James Dorr's counter to Q.C.'s opinion on patenting "The Letheon," which he represents.]

"Westminster Medical Society-16 January 1847." LMG 39 (1847): 157-57; Lancet 1 (1847): 99-100. [After case presentations by Chowne and Hancock involving the inhalation of ether, JS comments on effects of temperature of air during administration of ether. Gives table of cubic inches of ether in 100 ci air at five temperatures (44° to 84°). Mentions that Mr. Ferguson of Smithfield is making him an instrument that uses a water bath to control temperature. Later in meeting, JS noted that he had seen the removal of a diseased eye under influence of ether.]

"Mode of Employing Ether Vapour in Surgical Operations." LMG 39 (1847): 166-67. [22 January issue; Robinson describes the signs he looks for, and alternating method of breathing ether and air.]

"Apparatus for the Respiration of Ether Vapour." LMG 39 (1847): 167-68. [22 January issue; Tracy at Bart's describes apparatus (sponges in well, with inhaling tube) he's devised, and made by Ferguson.]

"Painless Operations at the London Hospital." LMG 39 (1847): 168. [22 January issue; successful case of amputation of leg on 14 January.]

Westminster Medical Society-23 January 1847. LMG 39 (1847): 200; Lancet 1 (1847): 120-21. [JS's presentation, "Apparatus for Inhaling the Vapour of Ether." Lancet article has illustration of the apparatus.]

"Operations without Pain." Lancet 1 (1847): 104-07. [23 January issue; at St. George's, Charing Cross, in Liverpool, Bart's (70 cases of extracting teeth, with apparatus supplied by Mr. Ferguson, "instrument-maker to the hospital" (108)), and East-Retford, where John C. Hall noted that he undertook an auto-experiment ("not having a patient to practice upon") as soon as he received Hooper's apparatus (107).

28 January, in which "the vapour of ether was administered in each case by Dr. Snow, by means of the inhaler described and depicted in our last number"; E, #1, 2, 3. Additional case reports from Cheltenham (apparatus includes a bladder in warm water), Maidstone Ophthalmic (Hooper and Robinson's apparatus), Bristol, private dental practice (apparatus devised by "a medical student now walking one of the London hospitals"), as possible cure of consumption, cautions about "narcotism by ether" becoming a fad, and letters about priority in discovery of ether for medical uses.]

"Operations without Pain." Lancet 1 (1847): 132-35. [30 January issue; at Bart's (Caesarian), the Middlesex (apparatus by Jacob Bell), the London, Kent Ophthalmic Institution (Hooper's apparatus).

"Table for calculating the strength of ether vapour." LMG 39 (1847): 219-220 (29 January).

Mr. Squire, "On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether, and the Apparatus Used for the Purpose." PharJ 6 (1846-47): 350-59. [issue of 1 February '47, but contains communications and minutes from meeting of Society on 13 January. Mentions the "temporary apparatus . . . put hastily together for Mr. Liston, when he performed the first capital operation in this country [on 18 December]. . ." (350). There is an illustration of the improved apparatus, plus description; clarifies differences in effects of washed and unwashed ether. Discussion follows, with explanation by Hooper of the apparatus he contrived after suggestions from Boot and Robinson; illustrations of differences between his fittings and those of Squire. Clendon exhibited an apparatus, illustrated. Waugh described his mouthpiece, illustrated. Jacob Bell described his apparatus, illustrated. Discussion by others, with illustrations of stop-cock by Stokes, Tracy (of Bart's, who claimed he had seen 70-80 cases already at which ether was administered) described an apparatus made for him by Ferguson of Smithfield (illustrated), and an exhibition by Ferguson himself of three apparatus he had made. Andrew Ure concluded discussion with comment that "ether was a non-respirable gas" and must be mixed with atmospheric air in order for the lungs to absorb it (359); to which the Editor demurred, indicating "subsequent experiments" to the contrary. He called for experiments on "the relative proportion of ethereal vapour and atmospheric air inspired" and "a series of accurate experiments" on the most effective concentration for administration-and suggested readers consult Snow's table of ether vapour densities at different tables printed on p. 361.]

"Table of the Quantity of the Vapour of Ether in One Hundred Cubic Inches of Air." PharJ 6 (1846-47): 361. [1 February 1847; table identical to that published in LMG on 29 January.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 184. [Three operations on 4 February, "in which the vapour of ether was exhibited again by Dr. Snow, in the presence of Sir B. C. Brodie, Mr. Keate, and a numerous assembly of spectators." Apparatus slightly modified during previous week, under JS's direction, by the instrument maker, Mr. Ferguson; E, #4, 5, 6. 13 February issue; additional case descriptions from the Middlesex (Bell's apparatus, described in Pharmaceutical Journal), King's (Hooper's), Cheltenham (bladder and tube) and a "modification of Snow's apparatus"), Royal Cornwall Infirmary (apparatus by a local medical man, "made under his direction"), and Essex and Colchester.

"Medical Intelligence: Painless Operations on the Lower Animals." LMG 39 (1847): 260-61. [5 February issue; two operations at Royal Veterinary College, one on horse, other on a sheep, using ether vapor. Both successful, with animals showing no discomfort.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 210. [20 February issue; two operations on 11 February; E, #7, 8. "Dr. Snow, who gave the ether in this and the following operation, placed his apparatus in water at 70°; but as soon as the operation of lithotomy was commenced, he partly turned the two-way tap, mentioned in our last, so as to reduce the vapour in the air respired from fifty to about twenty per cent., and the child [of four or five] breathed it thus diluted during the three or four minutes the operation continued. As soon as the stone was extracted, the mouth-piece was withdrawn, and the child instantly opened its eyes, and seemed revived." In the second operation, a mastectomy: "The woman inhaled for four minutes, when it was ascertained by Dr. Snow that the cap which admits air to the ether was not removed, and, consequently, she got no ether, and but little air. This was remedied, and she had the disadvantage of beginning the inhalation of ether rather out of breath. It excited some coughing, and in three or four minutes the face was becoming purple, and the pulse feeble and quick, and the features rather distorted. The inhalation was accordingly discontinued, and the operation commenced. She struggled and moaned during the operation; but at the termination of it, having recovered her faculties, she said that she had felt no pain whatever, and seemed in very high spirits.

"Mr. H. C. Johnson said that this patient laboured under bronchitis, and it had been a question whether the ether should be tried. He considered that it had somewhat disagreed with her, and that the bronchitis was the cause."

"On the Inhalation of Ether." Lancet 1 (1847): 168-69. [13 February issue; James Robinson's description of his method and review of some cases.]

"Etherization." Lancet 1 (1847): 187-88. [13 February issue; anonymous correspondent uses a case involving amputation of the thigh to review various apparatuses and papers to date (including citation of Snow's note + table from LMG). Concludes that "it is probable that the variation of the symptoms observed in this case may in some degree depend upon the quality and quantity of the ether, rather than on the difference of constitution, or peculiarity of temperament . . . ." (187).]

"Westminster Medical Society-13 February 1847." LMG 39 (1847): 383-85; Lancet 1 (1847): 227-28. [minutes of paper, "Observations on the Vapour of Ether, and its Application to Prevent Pain in Surgical Operations," read by JS. Ether vapor occupies space when mixed with air, but it does not produce insensibility by excluding oxygen from the air- asphyxia since supplying displaced O2 did not counteract the effects of the vapor. Animal experiments, comparing asphyxia caused by a deficiency of O2 with effects of ether, which "allowed the blood to be changed from venous to arterial in the lungs, but probably interfered with the changes which take place in the capillaries of the system. He had ascertained that a little vapour of ether mixed with air would prevent the oxidation of phosphorous placed in it, and considered that it had a similar effect over the oxygen in the blood, and reduced to a minimum the oxidation of nervous and other tissues" (Lancet, 227). Then follows some comments suggestive of JS's concern for welfare of patients, and brief description of how to admin ether using his apparatus.]

Westminster Medical Society-20 February 1847. Lancet 1 (1847): 228. [Dr. Ayres begins by noting that his attempts to administer ether as recommended by JS "produced irritation of the larynx and headache" and instead claimed that oral administration was preferable. JS replies: "since he read his paper at the previous meeting, he had completed some experiments, by which he had ascertained that the vapour of ether was given out again from the lungs unchanged, and that the amount of carbonic acid produced during the inhalation of ether was less than at other times; these circumstances he considered confirmed the explanation of the modus operandi of ether which he had previously given".]

"Medical Intelligence-St. George's Hospital." LMG 39 (1847): 482-83. [12 march issue; reviews three operations on Thursday 25 February "in which the vapour of ether was administered by Dr. Snow with the effect of completely preventing pain" (482); E, #9, 10.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 367-68. [3 April issue; begins with third operation on 25 February, left out of previous report, in which patient eventually died from phlebitis and abscess in lung; E, #11. "It may be remarked here, that all the other patients to whom either has been given in St. George's Hospital, including those in the present report, have either recovered, or are recovering favourably; and that no ill consequences have in any case followed the use of ether. Besides the eighteen cases in which it has been administered by Dr. Snow, it has been given with complete success, by means of the same apparatus, in three operations that did not admit of being delayed till the operating day. . ." (367). Only one operation without ether at this hospital since 28 January.

"Treatment of Facial Neuralgia by the Inhalation of Ether, and on a New Inhaler." LMG 39 (1847): 358-64. [26 February issue; Francis Sibson's article, one of early one studies of the medicinal use of ether vapor. Considered successful in facial neuralgia, not in sciatica. Apparatus (illus) includes adaptation of chamber and water bath from Snow's inhaler.]

"Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether." LMG 39 (1847): 364-66. [26 February issue; Fairbrother's case presentation, with preliminary review of literature. Concludes that "the insensibility of ether [proves] to be of a peculiar kind, and to vary considerably in different individuals in the nature and extent of its physiological effects: just as wine, spirits, tobacco, opium, &c . . . It is probable that the variations of the symptoms observed in this case may in some degree depend upon the qulaity and quantity of the ether, rather than on the difference of constitution or peculiarity of temperament . . ." 364). Then reviews explanations for variations by Squire, Hooper, Velpeau, and Snow (quotes from minutes of his WMS presentation and Table 1). May be syntax, but Fairbrother suggests that Snow took a cue from Velpeau on temperature of ether. On Snow's table, writes "this demands attention, but the temperature of the room may be easily ascertained, and regulated with a little care" (365).]

"The Effects of Ether." LMG 39 (1847): 366-68. [26 February issue; by Philpot Brookes, at Cheltenham. Series of case reports, all successful in his opinion except an amputation of arm in which "the ether was given with Dr Snow's apparatus" but the patient cried "lustily" throughout the operation. Notes that "the mouth-piece did not fit nicely to the mouth" of that patient.]

Review of James Robinson's Treatise on the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether. LMG 39 (1847): 379. [26 February issue; "will present no novelty to those who have read the weekly medical journals."

"Westminster Medical Society-27 February 1847." LMG 39 (1847): 473; Lancet 1 (1847): 259. [JS demonstrated application of ether to a linnet, followed by its recovery.]

"Patents for Surgical Operations." PharJ 6 (1846-47): 397-99. [1 March '47 issue; editorial, critical of Dorr for representing Jackson and Morton. Interesting inclusion of instructions issued by Dorr on 30 January for the "Letheonic Apparatus," advising operators that air passages in any apparatus must be large, and never less than 3/8 inch bore, or there is a danger of strangling the patient.]

"Apparatus for Administering the Vapour of Ether." PharJ 6 (1846-47): 421-23. [1 March '47 issue; by Mr. Owen, of Exeter, describing his invention.]

"Apparatus for Inhaling Ether." PharJ 6 (1846-47): 423-25. [1 March '47 issue; among others, includes an extract from Lancet (30 January 1847): 120-21 of Snow's first inhaler, plus illustration. Editorial comment: "By a remarkable coincidence we find that an instrument identical in principle with that invented by Dr. Snow, was invented some years ago by Mr. Jeffrey as an inhaler. The circumstance reminds us of the case of the new planet, in which two rival discoveries are in the field." (424) Has an illustration of Jeffrey's inhaler.]

"To the Editor of the Pharmaceutical Journal." PharJ 6 (1846-47): 474-75. [1 April '47 issue; Snow clarifies that there is no coincidence between his inhaler and Jeffreys', that he has always indicated that his was an adaptation. Cites LMG and Lancet issues-but the extract came from a Lancet issue which assumed readers already knew this. Editor expresses regret. Snow adds: "The object of the apparatus is to regulate the proportion of vapour in the air by regulating the temperature; and to effect this, I take advantage of the capacity for caloric which there is in two or three pints of water, and of the conducting power of metal of which the instrument is formed. The form I have adopted, is a matter of detail to enlarge the surface of ether exposed to the air" (474). He also clarifies that table published in February number was for unwashed ether, and that he based his table on "the formula for the elastic force of the vapour of ether, by Dr. Ure . . . . having ascertained by experiments, that it could be used with correctness for that purpose" (475).

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 367-68. [3 April issue; gives case descriptions of two operations on 4 March; E, #12, 13. "In these, as in former operations, the vapour, which was given by Dr. Snow with an equal volume of air until insensibility was induced, was continued in a much more diluted state during the operations, and the patients were also allowed to take two or three inspirations of the external air, now and then, by the nostrils" (368).

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 367-68. [3 April issue; two on Thursday 11 March; E, #14, 15.

Editorial-is enthusiastic acceptance of ether justified? LMG 39 (1847): 460-63. [12 March issue; thinks administration orally may be equally effective and with less risk than through lungs. But is it always desirable that surgical patients be rendered unconscious? Thinks not. Individuals are so variable that it is impossible to determine the desirable dose in advance. Decries the medical profession's unwillingness to be forthright about the dangers, and the deaths that have occurred which cannot be explained away as unrelated to ether. Too often, surgeons turn operations into public spectacles, with newspaper reporters in attendance and prurient spectators when females are given ether.]

Review of James Robinson, A Treatise on the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether . . . ." Lancet 1 (1847): 284-85. [13 March issue; "Mr. Robinson attributes the want of success in the first few instances to the incompleteness of the apparatus employed. Experience and ingenuity has enabled him to suggest the construction of an instrument which is now employed with almost universal success. Mr. Hooper, of Pall Mall, is the maker, and although Mr. Robinson is the inventor, we believe he refuses to derive any profit from its sale. The same honourable circumstance may also be mentioned as regards Dr. Snow's invention, one peculiarly adapted to country practice, being small, compact, and portable. It differs from Mr. Robinson's in being made of tin, and by immersing it in water heated to certain temperatures, the vapour may be increased, an advantage in cases where the patient has been a hard drinker. We believe that most of the other instruments which have been suggested and brought before the profession are only modifications of the two we have mentioned, and the only thing wanting to make them perfect appears to us to be a good mouth-piece; as yet, we have not seen one universally applicable" (284).]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 367-68. [3 April issue; three on 18 March; E, #16, 17, 18. One was a "hard drinker. . . . The apparatus was placed in water at 70°, and he began to inhale through the wide tubes, three quarters of an inch in diameter, which Dr. Snow has now got to his apparatus, and at the end of four minutes he was quite insensible, lying quite passive, with limbs relaxed" (368).

"On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether." LMG 39 (1847): 498-502 (19 March), 539-42 (26 March). [Dr. Ure, whose eudiometer Snow employed, was in the RM & CS-see Lancet 1 (1848): 232.]

"Medical Trials and Inquests-Alleged Fatal Effects of Ether in Surgical Operations." LMG 39 (1847): 563-67. [26 March issue; the case of Ann Parkinson, Mr. Robbs the administrator. Extracts of inquest, largely from the Times. Editorial response-Robbs was clearly not at fault, but still unclear if ether was at fault.]

"Inhalation of Ether in Obstetric Practice." Lancet 1 (1847): 321-23. [27 March issue; lecture by W. Tyler Smith.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 499-500. [8 May issue; reviews operations on 1, 8, 15[?] April. "Dr. Snow administered the ether in these cases, and the temperature of the water in which the instrument was placed was about 67° in the cases in which it is not mentioned; and, consequently, the proportions of vapour and of air were about equal up to the time the operations commenced. When the ether was continued during the operation, a more dilute vapour, usually about twenty per cent. to eighty of air, was given, and the patient was also allowed to take a few inspirations of air by the nostrils now and then" (500). On 1 April, E, #19, 20.]

"On the Fatal Effects of Ether Vapour." LMG 39 (1847): 585-90. [2 April issue; Robbs' report on the Ann Parkinson case.]

"Etherization and Asphyxia." Lancet 1 (1847): 355. [3 April issue; from John Scott, of Shelton, including extracts from La Presse. Calls for experiments on administration of ether that compare proportions of ether to oxygen at various temperatures. No mention of JS.]

Westminster Medical Society-3 April 1847. LMG 39 (1847): 646-47; Lancet 1 (1847): 388-89. [ JS demonstrated "a small and very neat apparatus for the inhalation of ether" made by Mr. Ferguson.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 499-500. [8 May issue; on 8 April, E, #21, 22, 23.

Editorial-effects of ether vapor. Lancet 1 (1847): 392-93. [10 April issue; decries silence to date of London Hospital surgeons about all details regarding the administration of ether-seeks a "detailed analytical account of the results" by experienced medical men. Prints a copy of the circular sent out by T. Wakley, jun., to metropolitan and country hospitals.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 499-500. [8 May issue; on 15 April, E, #24, 25.

Notice of W. P. Brookes' Practical Remarks on the Inhalation of the Vapour of Sulphuric Ether, &c. LMG 39 (1847): 689. [16 April issue; another contribution to "'ethereal' literature," but mainly a summary of author's experiences.]

"Physiological Effects of the Effects of the Inhalation of Ether." LMG 39 (1847): 669-71, 715-17. [issues of 16 and 23 April; paper by Dr. Buchanan delivered at Philosophical Society of Glasgow.]

On Ether-Vapour, its Medical and Surgical Uses." Lancet 1 (1847): 431-34. [24 April issue; includes printing of paper by C. J. Jackson on preparation of ether, an overview of "alleged fatal cases," and "inferences from my own experiments" about physiological action-quotes JS, "consciousness seems to be lost before sensibility to pain," but then cites contrary experiences.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 546. [22 May issue; amputation on 29 April by Mr. Cutler; E, #26. "An artificial atmosphere, consisting of one part oxygen to three of air, was passed by Dr. Snow over the ether in the inhaler, which was kept at a temperature of about 67°, the intention being to supply the amount of oxygen displaced by the vapour. Before she had inhaled a minute, she was excited, and sobbed in an hysterical manner, and began to throw her arms about. The process was discontinued a minute and three-quarters from its commencement, and in a minute or two she was persuaded to open her mouth and begin to inhale again without the oxygen; she became insensible in three minutes, with less excitement than before, and her limb was removed without pain." 6 May: another amputation, this time "Dr. Snow administered the ether, using Mr. Sibson's face-piece, mentioned above [below, actually], which answered very well"; E, #27.]

"On the Effects of Ether on the different Classes of Animals." LMG 39 (1847): 777-78. [30 April issue; paper by Dr. Gull read at South London Medical Society on 15 April.]

"Observations and Experiments on the Direct Action of Ether on the Blood." Lancet 1 (1847): 457-58. [1 May issue; by James H. Pring, M.D. No mention of JS]

"Operations without Pain. University College Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 546. [22 May issue; 3 May, E, #1, 2 (UCH). "Two operations were performed by Mr. Liston, and the vapour of ether administered by Dr. Snow." In the lithotomy, "the operation was commenced four minutes and a half after he began to inhale, and did not cause the least sign of pain. . . . The patient inhaled during part of the operation the vapour more diluted with air than it had been before; he was rather excited for a minute or two during his recovery after the operation, but was soon quite collected. Fifteen drachms of ether were used in this case, and Dr. Snow had a fresh mouthpiece to his apparatus, which he said was invented by Mr. Sibson, of the Nottingham General Hospital. It was made of metal and covered with silk, in the form of a partial mask, and admitted of respiration both by the mouth and nostrils, the border of it contained pliable sheet lead, which could be moulded to the peculiarities of the features, and retained the form given to it. . . . Mr. Liston said that he had at one time doubts about the utility of the ether, but he had lately performed several operations in private, in which the ether had been given by Dr. Snow with perfect success, and he was inclined to modify his opinion. Dr. Snow managed the ether better than he had previously seen it given."]

Operation at St. George's Hospital. 6 May, E, #28.

"A Lecture on the Inhalation of Vapour of Ether in Surgical Operations." Lancet 1 (1847): 551-54. [29 May issue; delivered at the United Service Institution, 12 May 1847].

"Hospital Reports. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 2 (1847): 35. [10 July issue; operations on 13, 20, 27 May; 3, 10, 17 June. "The vapour of ether was administered in all these cases by Dr. Snow." 13 May, E, #29.]

"Hospital Reports. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 2 (1847): 35. [10 July issue; 20 May, E, #30, 31, 32.]

"Hospital Reports. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 2 (1847): 35. [10 July issue; 27 May, E, #33.]

"New Method of Etherization." LMG 39 (1847): 950-51. [28 May issue; Prof. Pirogof sent notice of experiments on living animals has resulted in a method for administering ether into the bowels. Translated from the French, in St. Petersburg Bulletin.]

"Administration of Ether by the Rectum." LMG 39 (1847): 957. [28 May issue; Dupuy in Gaz. Med., success in experiments on dogs and rabbits.]

"Hospital Reports. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 2 (1847): 35. [10 July issue; 3 June, E, #34.]

"Hospital Reports. University College Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 639. [19 June issue; 4 June, E, #3 (UCH). Amputation by Liston: "Dr. Snow, who administered the ether, placed his apparatus in the cold water of the operating theater, which was 65°, and put into it two ounces of ether which was there, a quantity which generally suffices for an operation. The patient inhaled quietly, and the operation was commenced at the end of five minutes . . . . It was found soon after, that the ether was finished, and some one went to another part of the hospital for more; in the meantime, the incisions and directions preparatory to sawing the bones having been completed, the man began to complain, and Mr. Liston waited till he was rendered again insensible, which was in about a minute after inhalation was resumed . . . ." 5 June, E, #4 (UCH): Mr. Quain amputation. 7 June, E, #5, 6 (UCH): Liston performed lithotomy, followed by a finger amputation. "The ether was given in this, as in the former case by Dr. Snow. This patient found the ether disagreeable, and wished to leave it off when partly under its influence, but with a little trouble she was partly persuaded and partly compelled to persevere, and soon became quite insensible . . . ."]

"Hospital Reports. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 2 (1847): 35. [10 July issue; 10 June, E, # 35, 36. "In the last two operations [amputation of a middle finger on 10 June, a thumb on 17 June] he used a face-piece, which he has altered from that described in the last report, and introduced two swing valves into it, to supersede the spherical valves he had previously used. The expiratory valve is made to be moved gradually at will from the opening it covers, so as to admit external air and supersede the two-way tap."]

"Employment of Ether Vapour Enemata in India." LMG 39 (1847): 1049-50. [11 June issue; notes that Pirogof's methods were already tried, successfully on dogs but unsuccessfully on humans, in India.]

"Selections from Journals-On the Employment of Ethereal Inhalation in Midwifery." LMG 39 (1847): 1052-54. [11 June issue; abstract of Siebold's paper delivered 8 May in Göttingen. Successful experiments on women.]

"Hospital Reports. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 2 (1847): 35. [10 July issue; 17 June, E, #37. "In the last two operations [amputation of a middle finger on 10 June, a thumb on 17 June] he used a face-piece, which he has altered from that described in the last report, and introduced two swing valves into it, to supersede the spherical valves he had previously used. The expiratory valve is made to be moved gradually at will from the opening it covers, so as to admit external air and supersede the two-way tap."

Operation at University College Hospital. 18 June; E, #7 (UCH).

Operations at St. George's Hospital. 24 June; E, #38, 39, 40.

Operations at University College Hospital. 26 June; E, #8, 9 (UCH).

Operations at St. George's Hospital. 1 July; E, #41, 42.

Operations at University College Hospital. 2 July; E, #10, 11, 12 (UCH).

Operation at St. George's Hospital. 8 July; E, #43.

Operations at University College Hospital. 9 July; E, #13, 14, 15, 16, 17 (UCH).

"Academy of Sciences. Influence of Ether on Respiration." Lancet 2 (1847): 49. [10 July issue; Ville and Blandin's experiments "on etherization," concluding that "the carbonic acid thrown off during respiration always augments in quantity in proportion as sensibility becomes enfeebled, and, on the contrary, diminishes as sensibility returns and is reëstablished." Then give a table with results. Editorial comment: "Although the ether agitation is still very rife in France, and the inhalation of ether is tried, and, as we would deem, very rashly, in all kinds of diseases, yet we have lately laid but few accounts respecting this topic before our readers . . . ."]

"Correspondence. Letter from Dr. Morton, of Boston, U.S." Lancet 2 (1847): 80-81. [17 July issue; after trying various apparatuses, he has returned to use of a sponge.]

Operations at St. George's Hospital. 22 July; E, #44, 45.

Operation at University College Hospital. 23 July; E, #18 (UCH).

"Experiments on the State of the Blood in Etherization." Lancet 2 (1847): 138. [31 July issue; on rabbits, and concludes that "ether has not any immediate ill effects upon the blood, and that its operation must be upon the nervous system."]

Operation at University College Hospital. 31 July; E, #19 (UCH).

Operation at University College Hospital. 3 August; E, #20 (UCH).

Operation at St. George's Hospital. 5 August; E, #46.

"Medical Intelligence. Alleged Rape Perpetrated on a Female While Under the Influence of Ether." LMG 40 (1847): 259. [6 August issue; extract from Paris journal, Gaz. Med.]

Operation at University College Hospital. 11 August; E, #21 (UCH).

Operation at St. George's Hospital. 12 August; E, #47.

Operation at St. George's Hospital. 19 August; E, #48.

Operation at St. George's Hospital. 26 August; E, #49.

"Sulphuric Ether in the Treatment of Intermittent Fevers." LMG 40 (1847): 391. [27 August issue; in Gannat area, by Dr. Challeton.]

"The Letheon." Lancet 2 (1847): 241. [28 August issue; claim that discovery was by a Dr. Wells, dentist, in the U.S.]

Operation at University College Hospital. 30 August; E, #22 (UCH).

Operations at St. George's Hospital. 2 September; E, #50, 51, 52.

Operation at University College Hospital. 8 September; E, #23 (UCH).

"Medical Intelligence. Ether Vapour Applied by a Bladder and Sponge." LMG 40 (1847): 474. [10 September issue; M. Munaret's apparatus, including a wire mesh over face that holds the bladder.]

"Results of the Inhalation of Ether in One Hundred and Six Cases." LMG 40 (1847): 547-49. [24 September issue; by Wells, from Malta, a strong advocate of its use. Aware of Snow's degrees of etherization and apparatus, although Wells prefers a sponge for its simplicity.]

On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether in Surgical Operations: containing a description of the various stages of Etherization, and a statement of the results of nearly eighty operation in which ether has been employed. London: Churchill, September/October 1847. Pp. 88. [Listed as received for review in 8 October issue, LMG 40 (1847): 648.]

Review of Snow, On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether in Surgical Operations. Lancet 2 (1847): 410-11. [16 October issue.]

Westminster Medical Society-23 October 1847. Lancet 2 (1847): 467. [30 October issue; at second meeting of the session, Dr. F. Bird described case of a woman whose ovaries were extirpated. JS wondered if ether had been employed. "The length of time during which insensibility might be required would form no objection to it use." Goes on to discuss other uses of ether to produce insensibility.]

Review of Snow, On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether in Surgical Operations. LMG 40 (1847): 812-14. [5 November issue.]

"British Medical Journals. On the Mode and Effects of the Inhalation of Ether." Lancet 2 (1847): 498. [6 November issue; extracted from LMG's letter from Wells in Malta, including passage where Wells notes that "several cases have convince me that, contrary to the statements of Dr. Snow and others, in many persons a state of insensibility to pain precedes the loss of consciousness,-that the faculty of perception remains after that of tactile sensibility is lost." Also considers the Hooper-Robinson apparatus "particularly defective." While "Dr. Snow seems to have combined all the advantages an apparatus can afford, but still, I think, as a simple, portable, and effective means of rapidly inducing insensibility, the sponge must be preferred by the practical surgeon."]

"Dr. Snow on the effects of ether vapour." LMG 40 (1847): 859. [12 November issue; JS requests a correction of an error in a quotation in review of On the Inhalation, and its implications for the reviewer's opinion; reviewer's reply to JS in 19 November issue, 898-99.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 2 (1847): 661. [18 December issue; mastectomy performed on 18 November. "The chloroform was administered by Dr. Snow with his ether apparatus." A lithotomy on 25 November, "Half a drachm of chloroform was sprinkled over a sponge squeezed out of cold water, and the sponge was applied by Dr. Snow over the mouth and nostrils." On the same day, a boy "inhaled the vapour of chloroform from the ether apparatus-the water-bath of the apparatus being at 60°." On 2 December, a girl "inhaled from the apparatus with the water-bath at 60°, a drachm of chloroform having been put in." After several minutes, "she made a wry face, and cried out a little. The chloroform was found to be all dried up; she had been inhaling only air the latter part of the time . . . ." On 9 December, a male laborer "inhaled chloroform from the apparatus, the water-bath being at 52°." Although Snow is not specifically mentioned as having administered in all cases, the report suggests so.]

"Medical Intelligence. Discovery of a Substitute for Ether Vapour by Professor Simpson." LMG 40 (1847): 906. [19 November issue; simply announces "the discovery . . . of a new anæsthetic agent, which is in many respects preferable to the use of ether vapour in surgical operations. . . . Chloroform, or Perchloride of Formyte."]

"Westminster Medical Society--20 November 1847. LMG 40 (1847): 1030-31; Lancet 2 (1847): 575-76. [JS presents the results of auto-experiments on chloroform after learning of Dr. Simpson's use of the agent. Describes earliest administration, tests, how extracted from chloride of calcium given to him by the chemist, Mr. Bullock. Also gives a table on amount of chloroform held by air at various temperatures.]

"Hospital Reports. St. Bartholomew's Hospital." Lancet 2 (1847): 571. [27 November issue; notes first use of chloroform on 20 November.]

"On a New Anæsthetic Agent, More Efficient than Sulphuric Ether." Lancet 2 (1847): 549-50. [20 November issue; different in several respects from the one published the following week by LMG.]

"Operations without Pain. University College Hospital." Lancet 1 (1848): 25-26. [case discussion of operations in Nov & Dec, 1847, at which "chloroform was administered by Dr. Snow, with his ether apparatus."-first was on 22 November 1847]

"Physiological Erfects [sic] of the Inhalation of Ether." LMG 40 (1847): 929-33. [26 November issue; article by Andrew Buchanan, M.D., of Glascow. "The narcotic effects produced by ether . . . do not always follow upon inhalation. The operation, as it is at present practised, must be admitted to be uncertain and not devoid of danger. . . . The source of this uncertainty and danger is the difficulty of determining the exact quantity of ethereal vapour which is inhaled, and the proportion of air which is mingled with it" (929). Then proceeds to discuss a new inhaler he's constructed; don't find mention of JS.]

"Discovery of a New Anæsthetic Agent, more efficient than sulphuric ether." LMG 40 (1847): 934-37. [26 November issue; by J. Y. Simpson, who begins: "At the first winter meeting of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, held on the 10th November last, I had an opportunity of directing the attention of the members to a new agent, which I had been using for some time previously, for the purpose of producing insensibility to pain in surgical and obstetric practice" (934). Advantages over ether-less needed to produce effect; more rapid and complete action; more agreeable to inhale; less expensive; odor is not unpleasant; more portable; no special inhaler required. Then describes its use in surgical operations (4 cases) and obstetric practice (3 cases). Outlines the conditions for successful etherization in surgery, and notes that chloroform is advantageous in each. Recommends administration by handkerchief.]

Editorial-Chloroform. LMG 40 (1847): 938-39. [26 November; begins with the current disinterest of readers in ether administration, "while the machines, with the most complex arrangement of valves, tubes, &c., have by degrees given place to the use of an ordinary sponge. Sic transit gloria" (938). Then refers to letter from Simpson in this issue, and notes that the same letter has already been published elsewhere and chloroform already tried in London (by Liston, among others). Reminds readers that "Chloric Ether" has "for some time" been used as a local application in London. In footnote, cites Liebig on how to prepare the liquid. Cautions about becoming overly enthusiastic again.]

Westminster Medical Society-27 November 1847. LMG 40 (1847): 1031-32; Lancet 2 (1847): 605-06. [discussion on chloroform was resumed after a paper on aneurism of the aorta.]

"Physiological Properties of Chloroform." LMG 40 (1847): 978-79. [3 December issue; by R. M. Glover, Newcastle Med School. Acknowledges Simpson's preeminence in proposing chloroform as substitute for ether, but points out that he had published his findings in 1842 on the agent's physiological properties after a series of experiments on animals (introduced into carotid, jugular, stomach, and peritoneum). Found extensive congestion of lungs in a number of cases, so he cautions against assuming it is safe when inhaled by humans (unless alcohol consumption has protective properties).]

"Correspondence. Chloroformization in Dentistry." LMG 40 (1847): 993. [3 December issue; by C. Stokes, a surgeon in London.]

"Correspondence. Method of Preparing Chloroform." LMG 40 (1847): 993. [3 December issue; by S. Thomson, Edinburgh.]

"Medical Society of London-6 December 1847. History of Chloroform, and its use as an Anæsthetic Agent." LMG 40 (1847): 1079-80. Lancet 2 (1847): 631.[11 December issue; paper read by Dr. Cogswell.]

Editorial. Death of Robert Liston, Esq., F.R.S. Lancet 2 (1847): 633-34. [11 December issue; fulsome praise-cf. to later notice of Snow's death.]

"Operations without Pain. University College Hospital." Lancet 1 (1848): 25-26. [case discussion of operations in Nov & Dec, 1847, at which "chloroform was administered by Dr. Snow, with his ether apparatus."-four on 15 December 1847.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1848): 35-36. [Six cases at which JS administered anaesthetic, five of chloroform and one of benzin. On 16 December 1847: "The chloroform was administered by Dr. Snow-a drachm of it being scattered over the interior of a hollow sponge, squeezed out of cold water. The sponge was applied over the mouth and nostrils [of a ten-month infant] . . . ."]

"Operations without Pain. University College Hospital." Lancet 1 (1848): 25-26. [case discussion of operations in Nov & Dec, 1847, at which "chloroform was administered by Dr. Snow, with his ether apparatus."-one on 17 December 1847.]

"Administration of Chloroform in Cases of Difficult Parturition; delivery completed without pain." Lancet 2 (1847): 653-54. [18 December issue; case descriptions by Edward Murphy, UCL.]

Editorial. Ether Vapour of Proven Benefit in Surgical Operations. Lancet 2 (1847): 660. [18 December; does not take a stand on relative merits of ether and chloroform, however.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1848): 35-36. [Six cases at which JS administered anaesthetic, five of chloroform and one of benzin. In three cases on 23 December 1847, Snow used a "fresh apparatus" constructed by Misters Matthews and Ferguson (description given) to administer chloroform.]

"Correspondence. Asphyxia and Convulsions under the Influence of Chloroform." LMG 40 (1847): 1117-18. [24 December issue; by J. Beales, Suffolk. Not all unsuccessful, however.]

"Medical Intelligence. Experiments on the Action of Chloroform Vapour." LMG 40 (1847): 1123. [24 December issue; results of M. Gruby's experiments on dogs and rabbits, comparing effects produced by ether and chloroform.]

"Observations on Dr. Simpson's Anæsthetic Statistics." Lancet 2 (1847): 677-78. [25 December issue; by Robert Barnes, lecturer on midwifery (at a London school). Of the natural-pain school, Barnes concludes: "The question is not to be decided by the warm persuasions of 'zealous missionaries' of the female sex; by wanton abuse of medical practitioners; by inconclusive arguments reared on a few imperfect and doubtful facts, and those facts wrested from their legitimate applications; by false analogy, bad arithmetic, and statistics run wild; however conclusive they may be to the judgment, and agreeable to the taste, of the Edinburgh professor of midwifery" (678).]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1848): 35-36. [Six cases at which JS administered anaesthetic, five of chloroform and one of benzin. On 30 December 1847, Snow used new apparatus to administer chloroform during an amputation and benzin during a second amputation. "Benzin had been previously used by Dr. Snow in four extractions of teeth in the hospital, and had succeeded perfectly in preventing pain, although it was not carried so far as to paralyze voluntary motion, for the patients sat upright, and held up their heads without support; but the action of it in the above case [the patient had convulsive tremors] was not considered sufficiently favourable to encourage its further use in important operations."]

"British Medical Journals." Lancet 1 (1848): 47. [8 January issue; relief of spasmodic asthma by chloroform, from the LMG.]

"Case of Delirium Tremens Treated with Chloroform." Lancet 1 (1848): 70. [15 January issue; by Warwick from Notts.]

"Westminster Medical Society-8 January 1848." LMG 41 (1848): 74-76. [Snow read a paper, "Inhalation of Chloroform and Ether."]

Bristol General Hospital. Application of Chloroform in Typhus Fever. Lancet 1 (1848): 119. [29 January issue]

"Practical remarks on the employment of chloroform in surgical operations." LMG 41 (1848): 211-13. [ltr from Robinson, dated 2 Feb, in which he mentions that to date he's employed it in 1800 cases. The letter is an argument in favor of admin via apparatus and with trustworthy preparations of chloroform]

"Fatal Application of Chloroform." Lancet 1 (1848): 161-62. [5 February issue; Hannah Greener's death in Winlaton, five miles from Newcastle. Editorial exonerating the surgeon on 158]

"Remarks on the Alleged Case of Death from the Action of Chloroform." Lancet 1 (1848): 175-76. [12 February issue; J. Y. Simpson writes, "The unfortunate patient certainly died when under the influence of chloroform, not, however, as I believe, from its effects, but from the effects of the means used to revive her" (175).. . . . Besides, the dose of chloroform exhibited by Mr. Meggison was so small as to render it exceedingly improbable that it could have been the essential cause of the death of the patient. {New para} . . . while it appears highly improbable that the fatal result in Mr. Meggison's patient could be the consequence of the use of chloroform, and entirely due to it, the conditions in which the patient was placed were such as would almost inevitably have produced death by asphyxia" (176).]

"On the Inhalation of Chloroform and Ether, with description of an apparatus." Lancet 1 (1848): 177-80. [12 February issue; read at Westminster Medical Society on 8 January 1848]

"The fatal chloroform case at Newcastle." Lancet 1 (1848): 239. [issue of 26 Feb; Snow believes the case of Hannah Greener "appears to confirm in a melancholy manner the remarks contained in my paper in The Lancet of the 12th instant, respecting the danger arising from the cumulative property of the agent when administered on a handkerchief. The alarming symptoms came on after the cloth with chloroform was removed from the patient's face." Snow disagrees with Simpson's conclusion that attempts to revive the girl caused the fatality, noting "that there is nothing in the reported evidence of the appearances on dissection which might not be caused by the kind of asphyxia liable to be induced when the effects of chloroform are carried too far; and these appearances are quite incompatible with Dr. Simpson's supposition that there was syncope."]

Westminster Medical Society-26 February 1848. Lancet 1 (1848): 312. [Lankester, Murphy, and Snow discuss views of Hannah Greener's death. Snow mentions that he wrote Meggison, and received a reply. "It was evident from this that the fatal event arose from the effect of the vapour accumulating after its exhibition was discontinued . . . ." Suggests use of an apparatus, and mentions attempts at artificial respiration on animals.]

"Remarks on the Fatal Case of Inhalation of Chloroform." LMG 41 (1848): 277-78.

"Royal Medico-Botanical Society-16 March 1848." LMG 41 (1848): 606-07[?? check pages]; MT 17 (1847-48): 462-63; Lancet 1 (1848): 379. [Snow read a paper, "Chloroform and other narcotic Vapours.]

Westminster Medical Society-22 April 1848. Lancet 1 (1848): 476-78. [Mr. I. B. Brown read a paper on "the use of chloroform in midwifery." Snow commented extensively, and "approved entirely of Mr. Brown's practice of putting only about ten or fifteen minims of chloroform on the handkerchief. It was what he had recommended when the handkerchief or sponge was used; and although not the best method of administering chloroform, yet in midwifery, where a small quantity could be applied at a time, there was no serious objection to it. . . . He saw no objection to its moderate and careful administration, even in natural labour, when the patient wished for it, and the pain was very severe. He did not think it would be injurious to the child. . . ." (478).] [Therefore, he's justified in '48 the mode of administration used on QV five years later.]

Westminster Medical Society-29 April 1848. Lancet 1 (1848): 523. [Snow read a paper, "On Narcotism by the Inhalation of Vapours."]

"On Narcotism by the Inhalation of Vapours." LMG 41 (1848): 850-54 (#1), 893-95 (#2), 1074-78 (#3); 42 (1848): 330-35 (#4), 412-16 (#5), 614-19 (#6), 840-44 (#7), 1021-25 (#8).

"Suggestions for the Treatment of Cholera by Anæsthetic Agents." Lancet 2 (1848): 82-83. [15 July issue; anon. reference to discovery of sulphate of carbon as an alternative to chloroform; recs for treatment of cholera since sul of car is an antispasmodic]

"Remarks of a Case of Spasmodic English Cholera." Lancet 2 (1848): 125. [29 July issue; among other treatments, rec. the use of ether as a "stimulant."

"Asiatic cholera successfully treated by chloroform given internally." MT 18 (1848): 237-38. [case presentation by Brady, a surgeon from Harrow; issue of 12 August]

"Chloroform in Cholera." MT 18 (1848): 271. [case presentation by Mr. Stedman, from Isle of Ely; issue of 26 August]

"On the treatment of spasmodic cholera by chloroform." MT 18 (1848): 320-21. [another case by Brady; issue of 16 Sept]

"Chloroform in Cholera." MT 19 (1848-49): 14. [Letter to ed, dated 9 October, from P. Brady, surgeon in Harrow. Believes he's the first to employ chloroform in the treatment of cholera. Gives recommendations for use in all stages: first, in a draught; second, draught + pill, followed by chloroform in a liniment to be rubbed into body whilst keeping it as warm as possible (contra what JS will soon suggest at the WMS), and in third, chloroform as part of an enema. Three dabs 'll do you!]

Medical Society of London-23 October 1848. LMG 42 (1848): 767-68. [Dr. Clutterbuck's presentation on "Cholera at Peckham.-Use of chloroform."]

"Treatment of the Cholera by Chloroform &c. in Peckham House (Poor) Asylum." Lancet 2 (1848): 514. [4 November issue; copy of J. Hill's letter to ed., in The Times of 30 October]

Medical Society of London-6 November 1848. Lancet 2 (1848): 556. [18 November issue; more discussion of cholera, including use of chloroform.]

"Correspondence. The Cholera-Results of Treatment by Chloroform." LMG 42 (1848): 902-03. [Ltr from James Hill, 13 Nov 1848, on treatments at the Peckham House Asylum]

"Chloroform as a Remedy for Cholera." MT 19 (1848-49): 286-87. [Jones Lamprey, M.D., London. Finds too many analogies between results from administration of chloroform and cholera to consider the former "a specific" remedy. Looks at patient responses and post mortem examination, esp the transaction of the Acad. de Méd. In short, Lamprey advises against its use in most cases. [??was there by now a dispute that would have made Snow, the acknowledged expert on admin and research in chloroform in London, consider investigating the proposed chloroform-cholera connection?]

"On Chloroform in Cholera." Lancet 2 (1848): 551-52. [ltr. in 18 November issue from James Moffat, M.D. Edinburgh, rec. use of chloroform at first appearance of cholera symptoms.]

Medical Society of London-27 November. LMG 42 (1848): 988. Lancet 2 (1848): 610 [2 December 1848 issue; Clutterbuck offered update on the Peckham Asylum treatments, and discussion followed, including comment by Hird.]

"Westminster Medical Society-23 December 1848." Lancet 1 (1849): 15. [mention that Snow read a paper, "The Use of Chloroform in Midwifery"; summation of opening remarks, at least, in LMG 43 (1849): 208-10; Lancet 1 (1849): 99-100] "Chloroform in Parturition." LJM 1 (1849): 976. [another view of JS's presentation on 23 December]

"On the Use of Chloroform in Surgical Operations and Midwifery." LJM 1 (1849): 50-55. [dated December 1848, published in January 1849 issue; probably a reprint of the paper delivered on 23 December 1848 at WMS]