Reporters' Transcriptions of John Snow's Comments at Medical Society Meetings/Other References to Snow

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1837-38): 211-13. [N.B. all transcripts concerning the poison candle caper are grouped together for context, even when JS is not specifically mentioned. Meeting of 28 October, second agenda item (summarized by HB): Dr. Scott summarized a presentation on poisonous candles a few months earlier by Mr. Everitt before the Medico-Botanical Society.  Mr. Everitt had reported that a new style of candle, apparently popular because of its bright light and low cost, contained by his experiments 4 grains of arsenic per candle.  Dr. Scott related to the WMS that he had some contacts with candle manufacturers (who were upset at being forced by the competition into practices they found disturbing), and heard reports that some candles now on the market contained as much as one pound of arsenic to 28 pounds of stearine wax.  Moreover, while at first sold mostly to private dwellings, these candles were turning up in churches and would probably soon appear in theaters, increasing the potential public health risk.  Dr. Scott solicited the opinion of the WMS upon the situation. The members argued about the form arsenic would assume after being burned in a candle— Dr. Addison claiming that the metal would be rendered innocuous, while others insisted it would appear as arsenious acid and therefore extremely poisonous (211-12). Two speakers alluded to the absence in Britain of any "medical police" who could take any action in the event of incidents like this one, if a threat to the public health were demonstrated.  One of the prominent physicians they quoted, who had previously called attention to the need for such an institution— and had been ignored— was Dr. O'Shaughnessy, whom we will meet later in connection with his 1832 research on the composition of the blood in cholera.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1837-38): 242-44. [Continuation of discussion of arsenical candles, in HB's summation: The discussion resumed on Saturday, November 4, and took an unexpectedly modern twist— a fear of lawsuits.  Dr. Scott opened the meeting by stating that some members feared that if the WMS made any statements about poisonous candles, they could be sued for libel by the manufacturers.  Accordingly, Dr. Scott had obtained a legal opinion from Sergeant T.N. Talfourd of the (Inner?) Temple, who reassured them that they need not fear legal consequences so long as they acted in good faith and did not single out any manufacturers by name.  The extended discussion which followed included the mention that "Mr. Phillips and Mr. Snow had succeeded in detecting arsenious acid in these lights" (243).  Other members debated the health consequences of the candles— two who had used them reported no ill effects; two others who had also used them reported ill effects; and another referred the members to the long history of serious health problems seen among workers in arsenic mining and manufacturing.  The WMS then formed a committee to carry out further experiments in consultation with Mr. Phillips and Mr. Everitt (who undertook initial researches and first raised concerns. Mr. Everitt would conduct experiments on sample candles at the 18 Nov mtg.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1837-38): 424-28. [The Committee returned its lengthy report on December 9. Dr. Granville read it in toto, impressing The Lancet correspondent sufficiently so that the journal devoted more than 3 pages to the subject.  The Committee reviewed the history of these candles, noting that some 25 years previously, M. Chevreuil in France had found that common tallow consisted of two distinct substances, stearine and elaine.  The stearine was found to have excellent color and consistency for candle-making but was also difficult to work with.  But about 6 years previously, some stearine candles were successfully manufactured in Paris by a secret method.  Eventually it became generally known by candle manufacturers in England that the "secret" was to mix white arsenic with the stearine.  While these candles were becoming more popular in England, under various trade names such as "German wax-lights," "Venetian wax candles," etc., the French authorities had proceeded to outlaw their sale. Both chemical and physiological experiments were conducted by WMS members.  The first succeeded in showing that arsenious acid, black oxide of arsenic, and arsenuretted hydrogen could all be given off by these candles depending upon the conditions under which they burned.  Nonstearine candles were found to contain no arsenic. In the "physiological" experiments, seven bullfinches and linnets gave their lives to science as a result of breathing air in boxes in which the stearine candles were burning; some rabbits and guinea-pigs appeared ill from the candles; while birds and animals in boxes with regular tallow candles showed no ill effects. The Committee next reviewed medical evidence that humans were adversely affected by the inhalation of these arsenic-containing gases, and calculated that if the Drury Lane theater were lighted with these candles, 608 grains of arsenious acid would be given off during the time of one performance.  Their final conclusion was reported as:
"the vapour given off from [the candles] during combustion is likely to be prejudicial.  In closing their report, the Committee express their wish to be of service to the public in a matter of so much importance, in the absence of all medical police in this kingdom, the only country in Europe where the public health is so little regarded by the governing powers" (427).]

Editorial. Lancet 1 (1837-38): 457-59. [HB: "the question of ‘arsenical candles' has been taken up and prosecuted by the Westminster Medical Society, in a manner which is calculated to reflect considerable credit on the members of that body" (457).  The editorial went on to review the history of the candles, to cite the "clear proofs" (459) from the WMS experiments that even small amounts of arsenic are injurious "to the animal economy," (458) particularly when its vapors are "brought into incessant contact with the lungs,–an organ which is peculiarly liable to disease, and calculated to transmit poisonous substances to the economy with greater rapidity than the stomach, or any other part of the animal frame" (458), and to compare British official indifference unfavorably to the French example of prompt legal intervention. The editors chose to highlight the WMS deliberations "on the important, though, in this country, much neglected, subject of the means of preserving the public health" (457). "Public hygiene is the science which embraces the principles, and explains the methods, which are best calculated to promote or preserve the health of a whole population" (458). ]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1837-38): 461-63. [mtg of 16 Dec, the last before the Christmas recess. Mr. Golding Bird had tried to recover arsenic from the bodies of the dead birds, finding a minute quantity; but he also noticed that the birds, before dying, and drunk a considerable quantity of water, and he found that the water in the boxes was contaminated with arsenic.  He wondered if the water rather than the air was actually the main route of entry of the poison.  "Mr. Josh. Toynbee, and Mr. Snow, had conducted a series of experiments on these candles, to ascertain the effects of their combustion on animal life. They found that guinea-pigs, exposed to a constant stream of vapour, from six of these candles, for two separate periods of eight hours each, were not at all affected, even though the temperature of the box, through which the vapour passed, was occasionally as high as 110°. The animals ate their food, which was constantly exposed to the gas. The experiments were subsequently repeated, and carried on for a period of six days, in a temperature never exceeding 80°, with the same results. Two candles were then made, each contained a drachm of arsenious acid; the vapour from these did not affect the guinea pigs. Subsequent experiments with some birds had been instituted, but owing to the apparatus having ignited, no satisfactory conclusion could be drawn from them; for, though one of the birds perished in the smoke caused by the fire, the other lived for four hours, after drinking with great avidity during that time. The stomach, and commencement of the intestinal tube in each of these birds, were found of a bright red colour" (463). However, Dr. Thomson noted that guinea pigs were very difficult to poison.]

"Poisonous Candles." LMG 21 (1837-38): 577-80. [editorial of 6 January 38; arsenical vapors as the latest source of death to inhabitants of London (in addition to "noisome exhalations, from the decomposition of animal and vegetable matter" (577), overcrowding, etc. Gives overview of how the WMS came to deal with the issue after Mr. Everitt first raised it at the Medico-Botanical Society in mid-1837. Also notes that the entire report of the select committee, drawn up by Dr. Granville, "is now before us" (578) and extracts from it published separately later in same issue. Reviews the caper and how it was exposed. Does not include JS amongst those who conducted the experiments (their reporter had trouble understanding JS when he spoke, may not have liked Yorkshiremen–who knows). Gives a clear outline of the experiments and results, as well as the literature search of previous incidents undertaken by the committee. In conclusion, "the thanks of the community are due to the Society for the pains which they have taken in investigating s subject of such importance to the public welfare" (580).]

"Extracts from the Report on Arsenicated Candles." LMG 21 (1837-38): 585-88. [under meeting of WMS, issue of 6 January 38. Extensive selection, although it does not include any ellipses. More understandable than the summation given by the Lancet's reporter, pp. 461-63.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1837-38): 722. On January 27, 1838, it was reported that the managing committee of the Society were boggling at the £50 cost of the experiments plus the printing of the report.  Finally, the notice appeared: WESTMINSTER MEDICAL SOCIETY, Feb. 3.-- At a special meeting held this night there was a large attendance of members, the majority of whom supported the Committee, who have re fused to receive or pay for the Report on Arsenical Candles, which they say was printed and published contrary to the written laws of the Society.

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1837-38): 868. [At meeting of 3 March 38, there was a discussion of puerperal fever. Some argued in behalf of atmospheric conditions. A Mr. Thurnam described a recent situation at the Westminster Hospital, concluding that "All these cases had occurred during the prevalence of a north-east wind, and the patients affected occupied one ward, which fact might tend in some way to strengthen the doctrine of contagion in some minds." After which, JS replied: "Mr. Snow believed that typhus fever was contagious, and related a case in which a servant girl was attacked with the disease, and sent home, a distance of many miles; there had been no typhus fever in the place; the whole of her family suffered from the complaint, and several of the members died."]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1838-39): 306-07. [JS comments at meeting of 10 Nov 38 on use of colchicum to relieve rheumatism]

Westminster Medical Society. LMG 23 (1838-39): 348-49. [JS comments at meeting of 17 Nov. on a case of prolapse of the vagina he had seen during a delivery]

"Westminster Medical Society." Lancet 1 (1838-39): 307. [meeting of 10 Nov 38; discussion of pericarditis, ossification of aortic valves, etc. "Mr. Snow had observed that the pain in cases of rheumatism was relieved, as if by magic, under the use of colchicum; the sudden relief he considered rather desirable than dangerous."]

Westminster Medical Society. LMG 23 (1838-39): 380-82. [At meeting of 24 Nov ‘38, Q to Dr. Bird about article in the Times about carbonic acid and his reply]

"Westminster Medical Society." Lancet 1 (1838-39): 418-21,  LMG 23 (1838-39): 425-27. . [meeting of 1 December 38; JS has extensive comments on death from carbonic acid, including "Death . . . arose . . . from the diminished quantity of oxygen in a given volume of air; the lungs, as was known, were capable of extracting only a certain portion of the oxygen from another gas, owing to the affinity which one gas bore to another" (419). Idios from LMG wrote that "Mr. Snow now made some observations in a very low tone, and consequently his meaning could not be very well caught." Perhaps the rep from the Lancet sat closer to JS, since that report seems complete]]

Westminster Medical Society. LMG 23 (1838-39): 486-89, Lancet I (1838-39): 485. [JS reported to make two brief comments at meeting of 15 Dec–one about the chemical constituency of morphia, the other supporting Dr. Marshall Hall (about "the true spinal marrow") against his critics.]

Westminster Medical Society. LMG 23 (1838-39): 538-40. [JS comments at meeting of 22 Dec on the glosso-pharyngeal nerve–also shows he attended meeting of General Philosophical Association (?) or had read transactions or was closely connected to Dr. Reid, author of paper read there.]

Westminster Medical Society. LMG 23 (1838-39): 619-23, Lancet 1 (1838-39): 621-23. [JS asks questions and comments at meeting of 12 January about iodides of iron and arsenic.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1838-39): 672-74, LMG 23 (1838-39): 649-51. [JS comments at meeting of 19 Jan 39 on tetanus and disorder of the alimentary canal–traditional notion of a constitutional disease/humoral worldview and therapeutics. By the way, Idios from LMG seems to have taken a dislike to JS; his reportage on JS is shorter than the Lancet's man, or left out entirely.] 

Westminster Medical Society. LMG 23 (1838-39): 682-84. [JS listed as making a "general comment" (perhaps on epilepsy) at meeting of 26 Jan.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1838-39): 725-28. [JS comments at meeting of 2 Feb on a case of croup he had seen; explanation quickly moves to physiology.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1838-39): 771-73, LMG 23 (1838-39): 764-66. [JS comments twice at a meeting of 9 Feb, once on malformations in birds and reptiles, once on a human fetus (cites capillary circulation).]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1838-39): 810-14, LMG 23 (1838-39): 794-97. [Meeting of 16 Feb. After JS comments on pneumonia, there was a paper by Dr. Addison on malaria (who "saw no reason in more modern theories to abandon the old-fashioned doctrine that miasma depended on a change exerted on vegetable matter a certain temperature and moisture.") In response, "Mr. Snow thought that the diseases caused by the miasmata of the Thames, and witnessed by Dr. Addison at Guy's Hospital, should not be taken as a fair specimen of marsh fevers generally, insomuch as the usual cause of these fevers was here complicated with the decomposition of a great deal of animal matter; and sulphuretted hydrogen, and the other products of animal decomposition, though they gradually undermined the health, did not of themselves cause ague. He hoped that the bed of the Thames could be so altered that the mud would not be exposed between each tide; the inhabitants of Newcastle were very subject to ague until some time during the last century, when the river Tyne was so far deepened that no mud was left exposed near the town between each tide" (813).]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1838-39): 849-51, LMG 23 (1838-39): 875-79. [At meeting of 23 Feb, JS made a comment about opium-eaters of Turkey; then discussion of malaria continued, although JS is not listed as contributing further.]

Westminster Medical Society. LMG 23 (1838-39): 954-56, Lancet 1 (1838-39): 911-12. [At meeting of 9 Mar, "The President at nine o'clock, called upon Mr. Snow . . . to proceed with the discussion of MALARIA. (Para) That gentleman accordingly entered into some ingenious ratiocination as to the nature of the malarious poison. He felt disposed to concur in the views of Dr. Ferguson, who did not consider vegetable decomposition as the cause of malaria, but a particular condition of the atmosphere, contingent upon the occurrence of heat and dryness after a rainy season. We regret we could not collect the details of Mr. Snow's address, in consequence of the lowness with which he spoke" (954). The reporter from the Lancet does not mention JS, but begins with Edwards' remarks which followed JS.]

Westminster Medical Society. LMG 24 (1838-39): 25-27. [meetings of 16 and 23 Mar; on the 16th Dr. Bird delivered paper on carbonic acid poisoning. At JS's motion, supposed to be continued the following meeting, but there wasn't time then. Postponed to the 30th.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 2 (1838-39): 93-95, LMG 24 (1838-39): 60-62. [Meeting of 30 Mar, at which JS was first discussant in the adjourned debate on carbonic acid. In the meantime, he had undertaken an extensive range of experiments. N.B. Should be consulted for his approach to studying gases prior to anesthesia: "he was now convinced that this gas exercised a deleterious effect independent of the diminution of oxygen consequent on its inhalation." Then details experiments conducted in last two weeks "to determine the effects of diminishing the natural quantity of oxygen in the air, when no carbonic acid was present." This time, Idios could hear our chap just fine.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 2 (1838-39): 200. [JS listed as making an observation about a paper on "Mental Treatment of Disease" at 20 April meeting.]

Westminster Medical Society. LMG 24 (1838-39): 255-56. [meeting of 27 April, JS remarks on his experiments with dogs and cats. Last meeting of this session.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1839-40): 291-93. [JS comments on suicide at meeting of 9 Nov.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1839-40): 371-73. [JS comments on scarlet fever at meeting of 23 Nov.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1839-40): 625-26. [At meeting of 11 Jan 40, JS comments on use of mercury as a therapeutic; recommends, where indicated, adjusting dosage to indiv and use small amounts. Basis argument on physiology of digestion. On topic of opium, extensive comments on its properties as a stimulant.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet I (1839-40): 664. [At meeting of 18 Jan 40, comments on salivation from lead poisoning.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1839-40): 806. [At meeting of 8 Feb 40, JS responds to a case presentation by saying the presenter had not properly distinguished anæmia from hyperæmia, and cites M. Andral cases about miners who died from impure air.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1840-41): 205. [JS comments on managing breech presentations at 24 Oct 40 meeting.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1840-41): 238. [At 31 Oct 40 meeting, JS related a case about retention of urine]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1840-41): 309-10. [At 7 Nov meeting, JS continues discussion of sudden death from earlier meeting. Among other points made: "Malaria and the poison of contagious diseases, which were likewise sedative or contra-stimulant agents, sometimes caused sudden death without developing their peculiar effects."]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1840-41): 855. [At 20 Feb meeting, JS argues (against Dr. Hall, that cold air is not necessary to stimulate respiration in new-born children.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 2 (1840-41): 203. [JS asks the President to check the minutes to see if a Mr. Yearsley, not a member of WMS, had been invited to deliver a paper on how to deal with stammering–methods that JS thought would discredit the society if it was believed it countenanced them. Turns out Mr. Y permitted to read the paper, not invited.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1841-42): 246. [At mtg of 6 Nov, JS comments on emphysema.

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1841-42): 341-42. [At mtg of 27 Nov, JS comments that increase in mental asylums reflects increasing medical interest in the subject rather than an increase in amount of insanity in the population; thinks insanity largely the result of passions, sometimes hereditary.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1841-42): 417-18. [At mtg of 11 Dec, JS comments that purpura is usually "the result of an impoverished state of the system" ]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1841-42): 598. [At mtg of 15 Jan 42, JS comments during a discussion of influenza: "Mr. Snow said, that from what he recollected of the two last epidemics of influenza, that complaint had become connected in his mind with a sudden and considerable increase of temperature. The epidemic in April, 1833, occurred immediately after a continuance of cold wet weather had been succeeded by that which was warm and dry; and the epidemic in the winter of 1837 took place after a frost had yielded to weather considerably warmer. From what Mr. Fisher had just stated, it appeared the police had suffered more from influenza than the rest of the population. Ind 1833 he (Mr. S.) had charge of a gentleman's practice in the country, at Durham, at the time the influenza broke out, and the complaint appeared to attack the coal-miners in greater numbers than the agricultural and other people; now the coal-miners, like the police, often had to work at night, and they were always deprived of day-light whilst at their work. He had learned that at one of the metropolitan hospitals the only cases of erysipelas admitted during one session were three or four policemen and two washerwomen, who were usually up all night at their employment. Erysipelas was an asthenic inflammation, in some respects resembling influenza; so that it seemed probable that night occupations rendered persons more liable to diseases of this class."

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1841-42): 727. [At mtg of 12 Feb 42, JS comments on rapid absorption of morphia through the skin.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1841-42): 805. [At 26 Feb 42 mtg, JS comments on a case of colic brought on by administration of acetate of lead by someone else.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1841-42): 899-900. [At 19 March 42 mtg., JS comments on cases he had seen of paralysis of the portio dura and "painful affection of the left arm."]           

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 2 (1841-42): 60. [At mtg of 2 April, JS comments on a tumor he found in sterno-mastoid muscle of an infant: "He thought an effusion of blood from a partial rupture of this muscle might in some cases serve as the origin of a morbid growth . . . ."]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 2 (1841-42): 105. [At mtg of 9 April 42, JS "related a case of obscure affection of the head"; extensive reporting on this case, concluding with JS "unable to say what had been the lesion, or whether there had been any organic lesion of the brain." Subsequent discussion includes mention by others of "functional disorder" and "eruptive disease."]

 Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1842-43): 184. [At mtg of 22 Oct, JS comments on a case presentation by Dr. Bird by discussing emphysema in relation to lung action and physiology: "this position was illustrated by the usual experiment to show the elasticity of gases . . . "–bladder and air pump; then mentions his comparison of ordinary respiration with coughs, "by making efforts of respiration through a glass tube with one end dipped in mercury."]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1842-43): 879. [JS comments on hemiplegia, relating how he brought relief to one of his patients "by the abstraction of a basinful of blood."]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1843-44): 275. [At mtg of 18 Nov 43, JS notes that he had observed successful application of tar ointment in scalp disease when in Newcastle.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1843-44): 306-07. [At mtg of 25 Nov 43, JS makes extensive comments on kidney disease as a consequence of scarlet fever. Mentions Bright, and agrees with those who believe admin. of calomel for scarlet fever is injurious.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1843-44): 523. [At mtg of 5 Jan 44, JS cites Dr. Prout on cases of urinary disease caused by medicines taken for gonorrhea. "He thought the most prudent plan was to be content with antiphlogistic and diluent treatment until all inflammatory symptoms had subsided; and then to use the balsamic remedies and mild astringent injections, if the complaint continued in subacute form."]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1843-44): 617. [At mtg of 27 Jan 44, JS comments on a case of malignant disease of the bone.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1843-44): 652. [At mtg of 3 Feb 44, JS adds to discussion of cases where patients have swallowed a blister. "Blistering plaster did not lose its power after application to the skin, as one blister was made by some practitioners to serve several patients"–the ghost of Mr. Watson??]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1844): 85. [At mtg of 16 March, JS presents a case of aneurism of the aorta. Then he follows with extensive comments about a paper from prior meeting: "Mr. Snow, who said that whilst he admitted that each hemisphere of the brain was a perfect organ in itself, and capable of performing its functions in some cases in the absence of its fellow, he could not consent to the propriety of speaking of the mind as being double. . . ."]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1844): 171. [At mtg of 30 March, JS comments on a paper about malformations]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 2 (1844): 237. [At mtg of 9 Nov, "Mr. Snow in the chair" – first mention that we've found of JS assuming the chair]

[?? RMCS of 11 Nov]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 2 (1844): 298. [At mtg of 23 Nov., JS comments on case of intussusception and recommended "plentiful enemata, administered early, would be likely to remove these intus-susceptions situated in the large intestine."]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 2 (1844): 411. [At mtg of 7 Dec, JS comments on three cases of potential foot deformities in new-borns and how he cured them.]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1845): 73. [At 11 Jan mtg., JS comments on results of an autopsy of woman who died shortly after delivery; found evidence of Bright's disease and edema of legs and body due to overly tight lacing during pregnancy]

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society. Lancet 1 (1845): 136; LMG 35 (1844-45): 591. [At Tuesday 14 January mtg., JS relates treatment he used to reduce a tumor in the sterno-mastoid muscle of an infant.]            Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1845): 192-93. [At mtg of Saturday 1 Feb, JS comments on sterility in females and how his treatment of a tumor of the abdomen in a woman (at the request of Mr. Marshall of Greek-street) turned out to be accumulations of fax-fin from necks of mutton–he also exhibited one fax-fin dislodged by enemas of warm water, aperients, and tonic medicines.]

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society. Lancet 1 (1845): 649. [Mtg of Tuesday, 22 April, JS comments on tetanus and its treatment. Not recorded as commenting at next two meetings, 13 and 27 May]

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society.  Lancet 2 (1845): 566. [Mtg of 11 Nov., JS comments on paper about accumulation of fat in kidneys in advanced stages of Bright's disease; refers to Bright and others, as well as own cases.

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society.  Lancet 1 (1846): 135. [Mtg of 3 January, JS comments on brain disorder resulting from ligature of the carotid artery]

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society.  Lancet 1 (1846): 602. [Mtg of 12 May, JS comments on paper, "On the Relations between the Constituents of the Food and the Systems of Animals," by R. D. Thomson, Glascow, read by Brodie about relation of diet to constitution; Thomson refers to Magendie and Liebig. JS's comments very interesting, for they suggest skepticism about organic chemistry as a collateral science of medicine, as well as references (uncited) to Newton's essay on benefits of "coarse vegetable food." In a following comment, Golding Bird mentions Liebig]

Lancet 1 (1846): 602-03. [paper at 12 May mtg of Royal Med & Chir. Soc.

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society.  Lancet 2 (1846): 665. [Mtg of 8 December, JS refers to own paper on strangulation of the ileum in disputing conclusions of Mr. Curling from the London Hospital on the same subject]

"Westminster Medical Society–12 December 1846." Lancet 1 (1847): 42-43. [JS comments on case presentation by Marshall; refers to French med journal, argued for "the impropriety of active purging in cases where suspicious pains have existed before," and described three cases he had seen.]

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society. Lancet 1 (1847): 98; LMG 39 (1847): 154. [Mtg of 12 Jan; "Mr. Snow said that the difficulty of removing an alkalescent state of the urine, by the administration of the mineral acids, was no proof that these acids did not pass off by the urine; for in nearly all cases of alkaline urine it became alkaline after its secretion from the decomposition of the urea, and such an amount of ammonia was produced in this way as it would be almost impossible to neutralize by any quantity of mineral acid which could be safely administered as a medicine."]

Westminster Medical Society. LMG 39 (1847): 157-57; Lancet 1 (1847): 99-100. [Mtg of 16 Jan, JS has extensive comments on effects of temperature of air during administration of ether. Gives table cubic inches of ether in air at various temperatures. Mentions that Mr. Ferguson of Smithfield is making him an instrument that uses a water bath to control temperature.]

Royal Medical & Chirurgical Society. LMG 39 (1847): 250; Lancet 1 (1847): 153. [Mtg of 27 Jan, JS comments on diseases of the kidney.]

Westminster Medical Society--20 February. Lancet 1 (1847): 228. [mtg of; Dr. Ayres begins by noting that his attempts to administer ether as recommended by JS "produced irritation of the larynx and headache" and instead claimed that oral administration was preferable. JS replies: "since he read his paper at the previous meeting, he had completed some experiments, by which he had ascertained that the vapour of ether was given out again from the lungs unchanged, and that the amount of carbonic acid produced during the inhalation of ether was less than at other times; these circumstances he considered confirmed the explanation of the modus operandi of ether which he had previously given".]

Westminster Medical Society–6 March 1847. Lancet 1 (1847): 314. [JS notes that the tables on pneumonia produced by the Registrar-General cannot be trusted since "bronchitis was frequently confounded with pneumonia, particularly in children. The deaths were registered as inflammation of the chest, whatever the portion of the lungs affected."] [N.B. how the R-G's tables are based on humoral paradigm, JS's on disease specific nosologies from the hospital clinical paradigm.]

Westminster Medical Society–10 April 1847. LMG 39 (1847): 778-79. [JS comments on deformity of chest in children, and refers to paper he read at WMS several years before.]

Westminster Medical Society–23 October 1847. Lancet 2 (1847): 467. [30 October issue; at second meeting of the session, Dr. F. Bird described case of a woman whose ovaries were extirpated. JS wondered if ether had been employed. "The length of time during which insensibility might be required would form no objection to it use." Goes on to discuss other uses of ether to produce insensibility.]

Westminster Medical Society–26 February 1848. Lancet 1 (1848): 312. [Lankester, Murphy, and Snow discuss views of Hannah Greener's death. Snow mentions that he wrote Meggison, and received a reply. "It was evident from this that the fatal event arose from the effect of the vapour accumulating after its exhibition was discontinued . . . ." Suggests use of an apparatus, and mentions attempts at artificial respiration on animals.]

Westminster Medical Society–22 April 1848. Lancet 1 (1848): 476-78. [Mr. I. B. Brown read a paper on "the use of chloroform in midwifery." Snow commented extensively, and "approved entirely of Mr. Brown's practice of putting only about ten or fifteen minims of chloroform on the handkerchief. It was what he had recommended when the handkerchief or sponge was used; and although not the best method of administering chloroform, yet in midwifery, where a small quantity could be applied at a time, there was no serious objection to it. . . . He saw no objection to its moderate and careful administration, even in natural labour, when the patient wished for it, and the pain was very severe. He did not think it would be injurious to the child. . . ." (478).] [Therefore, he's justified in ‘48 the mode of administration used on QV five years later.]

Westminster Medical Society–29 April 1848. Lancet 1 (1848): 522-23. [Dr. Garrod discussed twenty five cases of dropsy, following scarlet fever. Snow noted "that his experience entirely accorded with that of Dr. Garrod, respecting the nature of this disease. He related a number of cases to the Society about seven years ago, and the cases he had subsequently met with confirmed the views he then expressed. The dropsy was not the only consequence of the renal disorder; for the inflammation of the serous membranes, pericardium, pleura, or peritonæum, often occurred, and were the chief sources of danger in this affection; and in a few rare instances the renal disease caused inflammation of this kind, without occasioning any general dropsy."]

"Westminster Medical Society–21 October 1848." Lancet 2 (1848): 506-08; LMG 42 (1848) 769-70. [at mtg of 21 Oct, President Webster's inaugural address includes his view that current progress of cholera in London is meager compared to "other epidemic maladies," particularly scarlatina since "the subjects of its attacks are usually children, or young people just entering upon the morning of life; whereas the victims of cholera are generally drunkards and persons of worn-out constitutions, or those who have set every hygienic rule at defiance" (LMG, 768-69). Compare as well the mortality from cholera with "the invasion of the epidemic influenza, which was so fatally prevalent in the metropolis at the early part of last winter, when 1213 persons died from that complaint during six weeks ending on Saturday, the 8th of January last" (769). Mr. Brown then related a case of a woman who aborted in second month. "In consequence of the severe pain experienced in removing the placenta, the patient was placed under the influence of chloroform. It was quite successful, and she is doing well" (769); no discussion reported. Mr. Hird then read a paper on "Pathology and Treatment of Cholera." He gave "an account of the disease," described "the symptoms in a highly graphic manner," and compared symptoms and his treatment with results of twelve post-mortem examinations [clinicopathological aspect of hospital paradigm]. He had best results in second stage from half-hour admin of acetate of lead mixed in a solution of opium and spirits of cinnamon. Other actions along the Kennedy model (as outlined by P. Smith in his pamphlet). "In the stage of reaction, the treatment applicable to typhoid fever was called for" (770), not bloodletting. Concluding remarks: "Mr. Hird objected to the use of large doses of opium in every stage of the disease." Dr. Peregrine was first to comment on basis of three cases he had seen "in the present invasion." "He regarded all the symptoms of the disease as the result of the draining of serum from the system," and therefore it was urgent to control the diarrhea with chalk powder and opium. "In the advanced stages of the disease it was important to keep up the warmth of the surface of the body by the application of heat." "Dr. Snow objected to the application of warmth in cases of cholera, and founded his objection to its employment on the fact that in cases of asphyxia such application was injurious. Cholera was not asphyxia, but in some points resembling it, so far as the internal congestion was concerned" (770).  These are JS's second published comments on cholera, although first comments are in the teetotal address of 1836. N.B. no mention of 1831-32 experiences, no response to the pathological notion of causation presented by Peregrine. [??Does his comment about internal congestion require post mortem experience with cholera victims, or an analogy to his researches on chloroform dosages–see "Further Remarks on the Cause and Prevention of Death from Chloroform," the paper itself and the summation of his presentation at MSL on 26 Jan 56.]

"Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society–23 January 1849."  The Lancet 1 (1849): 126-28. [Snow comments on a paper re. Scarlatinal albuminuria]

"Westminster Medical Society–27 January 1849." The Lancet 1 (1849): 183-84. [Snow comments on case presentation of  "tumour succeeding scarlatina"]

"Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society–10 April 1849."  The Lancet 1 (1849): 428-30. [Snow comments on paper on pneumo-thorax]

"Chemical Researches on the Nature and Cause of Cholera." Lancet 1 (1850): 154-56. [JS has extended commentary on paper by R. D. Thomson, Glasgow, at 22 January meeting of Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society; mentions chemical analyses by Garrod and Parkes, analogy with influenza, and a pump handle story (St. Bride's).

"On the connexion between gout and rheumatism." Lancet 1 (1850): 340-42. [JS comments on paper by Garrod at 23 February meeting of WMS; introduces a chemical-physiological explanation, and comments on treatment he saw used "in the country.

Minutes of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, 26 November 1850. Lancet 2 (1850): 656; MT 22 (1850): 607. [JS says he's tried chloroform only once in treatment of chorea]

Minutes of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, 10 December 1850. Lancet 2 (1850): 705-08. [JS comments on use of chloroform in treatment of growths on upper jar.]

"Catalepsy in Relation to other Disorders of the Nervous System." MT 2 (1851): 546-48. [JS comments, regretting that Dr. Downing had not employed ether or chloroform]

"Provincial Medical and Surgical Association." MT 3 (1851): 176-77. [JS attended mtg in Brighton, August, but is not recorded as commenting]

"On the endosmotic action of medicines." Lancet 1 (1852): 11-12; MTG 4 (1852): 22-24 [the latter is issue of 3 January. JS comments on alimentary canal reflect clinical experience and chemical experiments; late Dec 1851/early January meeting of Medical Society of London]           

Medical Society of London. Lancet 1 (1852): 182-83. [At a meeting of 31 January, JS comments on experiments he conducted on alkalinity of urine]

Medical Society of London. MTG 4 (1852): 121-23. [JS comments on paper on liver secretions]

Medical Society of London. MTG 4 (1852): 121-23. [JS comments on paper on yellow fever in Rio de Janeiro–contagion]

"Death from the Inhalation of Chloroform During Surgical Operations." AMJ 1 (1853): 131-34. [within the Periscopic Review section of 11 Feb issue. Tables of deaths, with commentary, largely drawn from JS's article in LJM, 1852. Interesting first point, where emphasis is placed on JS's opposition to use of handkerchief or napkin to admin chloroform–compared with account of his admin to the Queen two months later.]

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society. Lancet 1 (1852): 331-33. [At a meeting on 23 March, JS comments twice on use of chloroform]

Epidemiological Society. MTG 5 (1852): 177. [mtg on Monday 5 July began with discussion of two papers read in June: Finch on "Failure of Vaccination in Bengal" and Stewart on the "Success of Vaccination in Bombay." JS participated in this discussion.]

"On the Relations of Vaccination and Inoculation to Small-Pox." MTG 6 (1853): 74-76. [paper by Waller Lewis, read at Jan mtg of Epi Soc; JS comments that smallpox cannot be spontaneously generated but is "invariably communicated by contagion"]

"On a Remarkable Case of Sarcina Ventriculi." MTG 6 (1853): 126-28. [paper by Hassall at mtg of MSL; no date, but in issue of 29 Jan; "Dr. Snow inquired of Dr. Hassall . . ."]

"Psychotherapeia." MTG 6 (1853): 331-33. [mtg of MSL in March; JS comments on mind-body interdependence]

"Her Majesty's Accouchement: Chloroform." AMJ 1 (1853): 318. [issue of 15 April. Reprint from the Court Circular: "Buckingham Palace, April 7. At ten minutes past one o'clock this day the Queen was safely delivered of a prince. There were present on the occasion in Her Majesty's room–His Royal Highness Prince Albert, Dr. Locock, Dr. Snow, and Mrs. Lilly, the monthly nurse." Subsequent bulletins indicate that Queen and prince "are well." AJM's editorial response: " We understand that chloroform was administered by Dr. Snow during the latter part of the labour, with very satisfactory effect; and that the Queen expressed herself as grateful for the discovery of this means of alleviating and preventing pain. (Para) The responsible position, and the acknowledged skill of the physicians who sanctioned the inhalation of the chloroform, the Royal Majesty of the patient, and the excellence of her recovery, are circumstances which will probably remove much of the lingering professional and popular prejudice against the use of anæsthesia in midwifery, even when sanctioned by competent authority, and induced with requisite precaution."

"Her Majesty's Accouchement: Chloroform." AMJ 1 (1853): 450. [issue of 27 May, in which editors reprint part of the Lancet's critical reaction, including the references to "the rumour" and the opposition to "the use of chloroform in natural labour." Then they reprint part of ed from MT of 21 May: "Dr. Snow administered chloroform to the Queen, in the presence of Sir James Clark, for the last hour of parturition. A handkerchief, on which a small quantity of chloroform had been dropped, was held to the face. Her Majesty was never completely insensible . . . . We are confident that Dr. Snow will, with his usual courtesy, afford it to all such as consider themselves entitled to ask it." AJM apparently confirmed their account and MT's with JS.]

"On Death from Chloroform." MTG 6 (1853): 534. [general discussion at May or June mtg of MSL, in which JS comments]

"Anæsthetic Properties of the Lycoperdon Proteus–Common Puff Ball." MTG 6 (1853): 610. [paper by Richardson, at MSL meeting (issue of 11 June); "Dr. Snow corroborated Mr. Richardson's observations . . ."]

"Cholera." MTG 7 (1853): 514-15. [mtg of MSL, 5 November, with JS in Chair; discussion of cholera and announcement that JS would be reading a paper on cholera at a subsequent meeting]

Physiological Meeting. MTG 7 (1853): 541-42. [JS recs use of stethoscope to count pulsations in various vertebrates; he had noted # in an adult lion]

"Fibrinous Constituent of the Blood in Relation to Disease." MTG 7 (1853): 563-64. [mtg of MSL on 19 Nov, at which JS comments on use of chloroform after this paper by Richardson]

"The Indian Plague and the Black Death." MTG 7 (1853): 614-15. [address at 5 Dec mtg of Epi soc by Babington, with comments by Milroy and JS–the latter on plague and temperature]

"An Account of Seventeen Cases of Parturition in which Chloroform Was Inhaled with Pernicious Effects." MTG 7 (1853): 654-55. [paper by Dr. Robert Lee read at Royal Med & Chir. Soc in mid-December; JS "regretted that Dr. Lee had indulged such severe remarks . . ."]

"Epidemic Disorders of the Bowels." MTG 9 (1854): 95-96. [paper by Tucker, read at 3 July mtg of Epi Soc; JS disagrees with Tucker that cider is a preventative of cholera, and makes reference to the 1832 cholera epidemic in Exeter–Shapter?]

"Practical Results of Quarantine." MTG 9 (1854): 199-200. [7 August mtg of Epi Soc, with JS commenting on how the materies morbi may have come from Hamburg]

"Some Remarks upon the Nature of the Disease Called Cholera." The Lancet 2 (1854): 339-41; MTG 9 (1854): 426-27. [Paper read at 14 October meeting of MSL, by Mr. Headland; JS makes extended comment, defending his theory that cholera is spread from person to person]

Medical Society of London. MTG 10 (1855): 67-69. [at 12 Jan meeting, JS comments on druggists who prescribe and disease specificity–syphilis is a specific disease, but that does not mean its treatment must be specific.]

"The nature and treatment of diabetes mellitus." MTG 10 (1855): 167-68. [at 10 Feb meeting of MSL, JS comments reflect extensive chemistry experimentation.]

"The natural source and physiological action of the woorara poison." Lancet 1 (1855): 242-43. [paper read by Dr. Cogswell at 12 Feb. meeting of the Physiological Society. JS is President and in chair; remarks on own experiments with woorara on guinea pigs.]

"On the primary or essential seat of cholera; with an appendix on the relation of temperature and cholera. Lancet 1 (1855): 262-64. [abstract of the paper by Dr. Edw. Smith read at 28 February meeting of Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, arguing that seat of cholera was the sympathetic system, not a blood disease; JS comments extensively, agreeing that cholera was not a blood disease and then trucking his alternative in considerable detail.]

"The importance of keeping systematic records of epidemics and the best modes of attaining this object in England and Wales." Lancet 1 (1855): 435-36. [paper read by Richardson, recommending that weekly returns by parochial medical officers be basis of national records rather than GRO's weekly returns. JS concurs, suggests additional records, and disagrees with Milroy on appearance of epidemics.]

Medical Society of London. MTG 10 (1855): 422. [mtg of 14 April; JS, pres, in the chair and comments on abscess and pulse rate in scarlet fever]

"Propagation of Cholera." Lancet 1 (1855): 456. [Abstract of JS's remarks at 21 April meeting of the MSL about the results of excavations at 40 Broad Street and the well + overview of Whitehead's findings; "these enquiries entirely confirmed those which he (Dr. Snow) had made last autumn."]

Physiological Society of London. Lancet 1 (1855): 611. [At the 14 May meeting of the Physiology Society, Richardson mentions a communication that a chap in Canada injected milk into veins of cholera patients "with much promise of success." Richardson thinks it's the water portion, and recommended injections into peritoneal cavity. JS remarks that he is not as convinced as Richardson that the quantity of water matters so much.]

24th Annual Meeting of the British Medical Association. AMJ 4 (1856): 683. [Held 29-31 July. After Dr. Salter's address in medicine, Richardson applauded it with one reservation–that Salter had inadvertently credited the Board of Health with exposing the influence of S&VW Co on the recent epidemic of cholera. "The discovery of the connexion between water supply and cholera in no way belonged to the Board of Health, but exclusively to one of our own associates–Dr. John Snow. [Hear, hear]. . . . It was not until Dr. Snow had, with unwearied industry, with that true genius for observation which so characterises his labours, and at great pecuniary cost, place the question beyond dispute . . ." (683). Wm Budd's supporting remarks follow, to which he writes a correction in a later issue. Lankester seconded Richardson's motion to thank Salter for his address, with the proviso about JS. Lankester corroborated Salter's statements with references to St. James. For a similar endorsement, see JPH&SR 2 (1856), Transactions, 192.]

"Dr. Snow and the Board of Health." AMJ 4 (1856): 730. [Wm Budd's letter of August, in which he emphasizes that JS should have full credit for original researches on the connection between cholera and tainted drinking water. Budd concludes this brief letter, "The outbreaks of cholera whose history I have endeavoured to record, relate, in fact, exclusively to other modes of dissemination of this subtle poison."]

Medical Society of London. MTG 11 (1855): 532. [at mtg of 10 Nov., JS in chair, as President, and comments on a case of convulsive disease]

"Poisoning by oxalic acid." Lancet 2 (1855): 521. [JS comments at 24 Nov meeting of MSL on a case of poisoning with which he was familiar.]

Epidemiological Society. MTG 11 (1855): 582. [at mtg of 3 Dec, JS comments extensively on case of puerperal fever]

"On the development of cystic entozoa in the human kidney." Lancet 2 (1855): 606-07. [Meeting of MSL on 15 December; JS makes remarks on lambrici, intestinal parasites he thinks could enter the human gut via swallowing ova when drinking (river) water.]

"Hourly pulsation and respiration in health." Lancet 1 (1856): 73-74. [JS makes brief remarks on a paper read by Ed. Smith at 8 Jan meeting of the Royal Med & Chirur. Soc., regretting that the Dr. had not made more extensive inquiries before presenting a paper (is this a recurring antagonism??).]

Medical Society of London. MTG 12 (1856): 73. [JS President until mid-March; comments on a paper about treating lupus with castor oil, noting that Russians drink large amounts of oil, without injury]

"Uterine Deviations." MTG 12 (1856): 98-100. [19 Jan meeting of MSL, with JS commenting on a paper]

Medical Society of London.  MTG 12 (1856): 151-52. [at meeting of 2 Feb, JS comments on a paper by Dr. Kidd on chloroform]

"Observations on the Choleraic Epidemic . . . at St. Laurent d"Aizouze." MTG 12 (1856): 172-73. [Js comments on paper, noting parallel between author's observations and his own analogical argument that intermittent fever was communicable; imagines the communication is indirect, as with tape worm]

Medical Society of London. MTG 12 (1856): 173. [JS "said, with reference to the production of cholera by evacuations, Pettenkofer stated that such evacuations must be those of a cholera patient, and be subject to a peculiar fermentation."]

Medical Society of London. MTG 12 (1856): 199-200. [at 16 Feb meeting of MSL, there was exhibition of a "magneto-electric machine" and a paper on amputation of foot; JS commented on the latter]

"Chemical Examination of the Excretions . . . ."  MTG 12 (1856): 216-17. [JS comments]

"Fæcal fermentation as a cause of disease."  MTG 12 (1856): 247-48.[paper by Dr. Routh at 23 Feb meeting of MSL; JS in chair]

Medical Society of London.  MTG 12 (1856): 294. [JS comments on "the cupping boot."]

"Pathology of Epidemic Cholera."  MTG 12 (1856): 295-96. [paper by Dr. Ayres at 3 March meeting of Epi Soc, in which he discusses Snow's hypothesis and JS replies]

"Fæcal fermentation in solution or suspension in water."  MTG 12 (1856): 374-75. [Dr. Routh, another paper on this subject; JS comments, rehearsing his theory–notes cholera must be "organised."]

Medical Society of London.  MTG 12 (1856): 421-22. [at 12 April meeting, two papers (one by Hassall) with JS commenting on both]

Medical Society of London. Lancet 1 (1856): 457-58. [At 11 April meeting, JS comments on anemia caused by blood loss via the "alimentary canal" and a brief info item to Hassall's paper on "adulteration of liquorice."]

Medical Society of London. MTG 12 (1856): 448-49. [at 19 April meeting, JS comments on paper about purpura.]

"Antimonial poisoning." Lancet 1 (1856): 545-46. [JS comments on paper by Richardson, noting experiments with dosages of antimony given to dogs at 3 May meeting of MSL.; also in MTG]

"Geological distribution of health and disease, in connexion chiefly with natural phenomena." MTG 12 (1856): 494-95. [by Alexander Keith Johnston, FRSE; read by another at 5 May meeting of Epi Soc. Presented a map discussed in paper to the society; JS commented]

"Suggestions for observations on the natural influence of cholera on the lower animals." Lancet 1 (1856): 660. [paper by W. L. Lindsay, from Perth, read in absentia at 2 June meeting of Epidemiological Society. Paper argued that cholera has been observed in animals, esp. domesticated animals, coincident with appearance in mankind, and was interspecific communicable, including from lower animals to humans. JS listed as participating in discussion. Also in MTG 12 (1856): 633-34.]

Epidemiological Society. MTG 13 (1856): 223-25. [mtg. of 4 August; Babington read paper on cholera in Black Sea fleet in fall of 1854. JS comments in behalf of water-borne explanation.]

Nature of phthisis. MTG 13 (1856): 451-52. [discussion at 25 Oct meeting of MSL, in which JS participated]

Medical Society of London. Lancet 2 (1856): 598-600. [at 22 Nov mtg, JS remarks on problematics in scientific reasoning and comments on a case of death after admin of chloroform–dismisses out of hand exp in France on chloroform as a test for epilepsy and says symptoms of death in case under discussion suggested overdose due to use of a sponge (rather than an apparatus in which the strength could be controlled).]

"On the Mode of Investigating some Epidemic Diseases." JPH&SR 2 (1856), Transactions, 116. [paper by Gavin Milroy at the 11 Nov mtg of Epi Soc; JS listed as a discussant.

"Climate of the Crimea, and its effects on health." MTG 13 (1856): 654-56; JPH&SR 2 (1856), Transactions, 116. [3 Dec meeting of Epi Soc., with indication that JS commented.

"On the determining causes of vesicular emphysema of the lungs." Lancet 1 (1857): 90-92. [paper by Wm. Jenner read at 13 January meeting of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society; JS's comments note that he had studied emphysema fifteen years earlier, and his understanding of respiration and air-sacs differed from Jenner's.]

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society–Emphysema. MTG 14 (1857): 97-99. [JS comments at 13 Jan meeting]

Epidemiology Society–four papers on cholera. SR&JPH 3 (1857), Transactions, 38. [3 May, with JS listed as one of the commentators.]

Epidemiology Society–on cholera. MTG 15 (1857): 46-47; SR&JPH 3 (1857), Transactions, 72. [6 July; JS listed as contributing to discussion]

Epidemiology Society–Gaol Fever. MTG 15 (1857): 152-53. [JS, President, in chair, and participant in discussion; issue of 8 August]

Epidemiological Society–Epidemic Pestilences in London. MTG 15 (1857): 540-41. [mtg of 2 Nov; Headlam Greenhow's paper, upon which JS commented (no record of what he said). Full paper in  SR&JPH 3 (1857), Transactions.]

Editorial. MTG 15 (1857): 479. [7 Nov issue; "Dr. Snow's important researches upon the recent outbreak of cholera at West Ham have strengthened his previous conclusions . . . ." Then notes corroboration from an officer of health about a boy who died in Bromley–he had drunk pump water from the West Ham pump (another Hampstead widow conversion of potential negative evidence into confirmatory evidence)]

Editorial. Lancet 2 (1857): 477-78. [7 November; finds the "Snow theory" inadequate. Calls for preventive measures of a sanitary and Bd. of Health type.]

Medical Society of London. Lancet 2 (1857): 629-30. [JS comments on Budd's study showing that deficiency of phosphate of lime causes rickets. Hence, JS rec against use of alum of bread, since it destroyed phosphate and causes rickets in children; negative evidence against a miasmatic explanation.]

"On the causes which influence the arrest and spread of cholera."  Lancet 1  (1858): 72-73. [paper by Johnson, for Bishopwearmouth, read in absentia at 4 January meeting of Epidemiological Society. Snow, President, in the chair and comments with others on medical inspection of sailing vessels during epidemics; see next entry for different version of same meeting]

Epidemiological Society. MTG 16 (1858): 74-75. [paper by Dr. McWilliam on "Causes which influence the arrest of spread of cholera." Snow in chair, and comments favorably on the parallels between McW's paper and his own theories.]

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society. Lancet 1 (1858): 418-19. [JS comments on use of chloroform for patients susceptible to faintness.]