Worksheet for Ether Chapter

Experiential etherization (normal science under the bedside medical paradigm):

--Editorial–8 January. LMG 39 (1847): 68-69. [notes that use of ether in surgical operations "is now becoming almost universal."

--Letters to the Editor – inhalation of ether. Lancet 1 (1847): 49-51. [9 January issue. Letters from Boot, "__ __, Q. C.," Clendon (including sketch of an apparatus by Clarke, and Collyer. Clendon tinkered without a "doctrine," as Mike defines it–unalloyed vulgar empiricism]

--"Pharmaceutical Society--13 January 1847." Lancet 1 (1847): 73. [16 January issue; paper by Mr. Squire describing his apparatus for administering ether. During discussion, Mr. Hooper described his apparatus, improved after suggestions by Dr. Boott and Mr. Robinson.]

--"Mr. Hooper's Ether Inhaler."  Lancet 1 (1847): 77. [illus + description; no discussion of theory or how gas vapor behaves.]

--"Operations without Pain." Lancet 1 (1847): 77-80. [16 January issue; case descriptions at King's College Hospital, using Hooper's apparatus, devised by Robinson, who superintended case one, perhaps the other six listed as well as those at Guy's, Westminster, and St. Thomas's. Letters from Lansdown and Fairbrother at Bristol; amputation of thigh (not in hospital?); operations on eye (using Hooper's apparatus) and teeth (using Squires' apparatus). James Dorr's counter to Q.C.'s opinion on patenting "The Letheon," which he represents. No discussion of how gases vapors behave.]

--"Mode of Employing Ether Vapour in Surgical Operations." LMG 39 (1847): 166-67. [22 January issue; Robinson describes the signs he looks for, and alternating method of breathing ether and air.]

--"Surgical Operations with the Vapour of Ether at St. George's Hospital." LMG 39 (1847): 168. [22 January issue; two of three cases on 14 Jan were abject failures when patients could not be rendered insensible; was JS amongst the "large concourse of spectators"? If so, this would not be a hard act to follow.]

**--"On the Inhalation of Ether." Lancet 1 (1847): 168-69. [13 February issue; James Robinson's description of his method and review of some cases.]

--"Treatment of Facial Neuralgia by the Inhalation of Ether, and on a New Inhaler." LMG 39 (1847): 358-64. [26 February issue; Francis Sibson's article, one of early studies of the medicinal use of ether vapor. Considered successful in facial neuralgia, not in sciatica. Apparatus (illus) includes adaptation of chamber and water bath from Snow's inhaler.]

--James Robinson's Treatise on the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether.

--Editorial–effects of ether vapor. Lancet 1 (1847): 392-93. [10 April issue; decries silence to date of London Hospital surgeons about all details regarding the administration of ether–seeks a "detailed analytical account of the results" by experienced medical men. Prints a copy of the circular sent out by T. Wakley, jun., to metropolitan and country hospitals. N.B. the information Wakley wants analyzed.]

--"Results of the Inhalation of Ether in One Hundred and Six Cases." LMG 40 (1847): 547-49. [24 September issue; by Wells, from Malta, a strong advocate of its use. Aware of Snow's degrees of etherization and apparatus, although Wells prefers a sponge for its simplicity.]

--"Discovery of a New Anæsthetic Agent, more efficient than sulphuric ether." LMG 40 (1847): 934-37. [26 November issue; by J. Y. Simpson, who begins: "At the first winter meeting of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, held on the 10th November last, I had an opportunity of directing the attention of the members to a new agent, which I had been using for some time previously, for the purpose of producing insensibility to pain in surgical and obstetric practice" (934). Advantages over ether–less needed to produce effect; more rapid and complete action; more agreeable to inhale; less expensive; odor is not unpleasant; more portable; no special inhaler required. Then describes its use in surgical operations (4 cases) and obstetric practice (3 cases). Outlines the conditions for successful etherization in surgery, and notes that chloroform is advantageous in each. Recommends administration by handkerchief.]

Hospital-Clinical/Pathological Perspective (Louis' numerical method, Paris school tradition):

Applied Laboratory Medical Perspective (medical problem-driven):

–"Surgical Operations Performed during Insensibility." Lancet 1 (1847): 5-9. [2 January issue; ltr from H. J. Bigelow notes that he did chemical tests on ether.

--"Medical Intelligence: Painless Operations on the Lower Animals." LMG 39 (1847): 260-61. [5 February issue; two operations at Royal Veterinary College, one on horse, other on a sheep, using ether vapor. Both successful, with animals showing no discomfort.]

--"Etherization and Asphyxia." Lancet 1 (1847): 355. [3 April issue; from John Scott, of Shelton, including extracts from La Presse. Calls for experiments on administration of ether that compare proportions of ether to oxygen at various temperatures. No mention of JS.]

--"New Method of Etherization." LMG 39 (1847): 950-51. [28 May issue; Prof. Pirogof sent notice of experiments on living animals has resulted in a method for administering ether into the bowels. Translated from the French, in St. Petersburg Bulletin.]

--"Administration of Ether by the Rectum." LMG 39 (1847): 957. [28 May issue; Dupuy in Gaz. Med., success in experiments on dogs and rabbits.]

--"Employment of Ether Vapour Enemata in India." LMG 39 (1847): 1049-50. [11 June issue; notes that Pirogof's methods were already tried, successfully on dogs but unsuccessfully on humans, in India.]

--"Academy of Sciences. Influence of Ether on Respiration." Lancet 2 (1847): 49. [10 July issue; Ville and Blandin's experiments "on etherization," concluding that "the carbonic acid thrown off during respiration always augments in quantity in proportion as sensibility becomes enfeebled, and, on the contrary, diminishes as sensibility returns and is reëstablished." Then give a table with results. Editorial comment: "Although the ether agitation is still very rife in France, and the inhalation of ether is tried, and, as we would deem, very rashly, in all kinds of diseases, yet we have lately laid but few accounts respecting this topic before our readers . . . ."]

--"Experiments on the State of the Blood in Etherization." Lancet 2 (1847): 138. [31 July issue; on rabbits, and concludes that "ether has not any immediate ill effects upon the blood, and that its operation must be upon the nervous system."]

--"Physiological Properties of Chloroform." LMG 40 (1847): 978-79. [3 December issue; by R. M. Glover, Newcastle Med School. Acknowledges Simpson's preeminence in proposing chloroform as substitute for ether, but points out that he had published his findings in 1842 on the agent's physiological properties after a series of experiments on animals (introduced into carotid, jugular, stomach, and peritoneum). Found extensive congestion of lungs in a number of cases, so he cautions against assuming it is safe when inhaled by humans (unless alcohol consumption has protective properties).]

--"Medical Intelligence. Experiments on the Action of Chloroform Vapour." LMG 40 (1847): 1123. [24 December issue; results of M. Gruby's experiments on dogs and rabbits, comparing effects produced by ether and chloroform.]

Integrative Medical Science:

--"Etherization." Lancet 1 (1847): 187-88. [13 February issue; anonymous correspondent uses a case involving amputation of the thigh to review various apparatuses and papers to date (including citation of Snow's note + table from LMG). Concludes that "it is probable that the variation of the symptoms observed in this case may in some degree depend upon the quality and quantity of the ether, rather than on the difference of constitution, or peculiarity of temperament . . . ." (187).]

--"Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether." LMG 39 (1847): 364-66. [26 February issue; Fairbrother's case presentation, with preliminary review of literature. Concludes that "the insensibility of ether [proves] to be of a peculiar kind, and to vary considerably in different individuals in the nature and extent of its physiological effects: just as wine, spirits, tobacco, opium, &c. . . . . It is probable that the variations of the symptoms observed in this case may in some degree depend upon the qulaity and quantity of the ether, rather than on the difference of constitution or peculiarity of temperament . . ." 364). Then reviews explanations for variations by Squire, Hooper, Velpeau, and Snow (quotes from minutes of his WMS presentation and Table 1). May be syntax, but Fairbrother suggests that Snow took a cue from Velpeau on temperature of ether. On Snow's table, writes "this demands attention, but the temperature of the room may be easily ascertained, and regulated with a little care" (365).]

--Review of Carlo Matteucci (Pisa), Lectures on the Physical Phenomena of Living Beings. LMG 40 (1847): 985ff. [3 December issue; some of these lectures have appeared in London medical journals. Reviewer notes to contents of twenty chapters, including "Molecular Attraction," "the production of heat, light, and electricity in animals, the physiological action of Gravity, Light, Caloric, and Electricity," and Animal Mechanics.]