Reporters' Transcriptions of John Snow's Presentations and Papers delivered at Medical Society Meetings + Anesthetic Administrations

(** = also found a published version)

"The Anasarca Which Follows Scarlatina." Lancet 1 (1839-40): 441-44. [JS's paper at 7 Dec 39 meeting of WMS].

"Tumours in the Brain and Spinal Canal." Lancet 1 (1839-40): 504. [JS's case presentation at 14 Dec 39 meeting of WMS.]

"Disease of Ileum and Bladder." Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1839-40): 734. [At meeting of 1 February 40, "Mr. Snow exhibited part of the bladder, the rectum, and ileum of a patient, who had died under his care."]

"Sudden Death." Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1839-40): 843-44. [JS's case presentation of acute peritonitis at 22 Feb 40 meeting. Discussion continued at 7 and 14 Nov 40 meetings, as related in Lancet I (1840-41): 309-12.]

** "Peculiar Species of Deformity of the Chest and Spine in Children."  Lancet 1 (1840-41): 894-96. [JS's paper read at 13 Mar 41 meeting of WMS.]

** "On the Resuscitation of Still-Born Children, and on Asphyxia in General." Lancet 1 (1841-42): 132-34. [JS's paper read at 16 October 41 meeting of WMS. Discussion at 23 Oct meeting (149-50), although JS is not recorded as replying until meeting of 30 Oct, and then extensively with many citations and evidence of having undertaken subsequent research to counter criticism (212-14).]

** "Paracentesis of the Thorax." Lancet 1 (1841-42): 484-86. [JS's paper, read at 19 December 41 mtg of WMS]

Westminster Medical Society. Lancet 1 (1841-42): 544. ["Mr. Snow placed on the table the instrument for paracentesis of the thorax, described in his paper read at the previous meeting of the society. It had been manufactured, under his direction, by Mr. Read."]

** "Circulation in the Capillary Blood Vessels." Lancet 1 (1842-43): 693-95. [JS's paper, read at 21 Jan 43 mtg of WMS. During discussion, JS said "he considered that the analogies from the vegetable kingdom and the simpler classes of animals greatly favoured his argument, and that a close attention to the phenomena in asphyxia, and especially the circulation in monsters without hearts, amounted to proof of his views."]

** "Inflammation." Lancet 1 (1842-43): 804-06. [JS's paper, read at 4 Feb ‘43 mtg of WMS, which was incorporated into circulation article published in LMG.]

"Remarkable Deformity of the Chest from Tight-Lacing." Lancet 1 (1843-44): 372-73. [At mtg of 9 Dec 43, JS's case presentation.]

"Aneurism of the Aorta."  Lancet 1 (1844): 85. [At mtg of 16 March, JS's case presentation.]

"Hydrophobia and its Prevention." Lancet 1 (1844): 172-73. [ JS's paper read at mtg of 13 April of WMS]

** "Fatal Case of Poisoning with Carbonate of Lead." Lancet 2 (1844): 144-45. [JS's paper read at 19 Oct mtg of WMS; this was the opening meeting of the new session, held "at its rooms, 32, Sackville-street" 144.]

[?? Lancet editorial p. 40 on Liebig's course of lectures published in journal–but torn out of Taubman copy; another editorial on p. 96, copied]

"Abdominal Tumour." MT 11 (1844-45): 515. [issue of 15 March ‘45, with reference to recent issue of Lancet where JS described case]

**"Asphyxia in Atmospheres vitiated by combustion, etc." MT 13 (1845-46): 366. [abstract of paper pub in EdinMedSurgJ]

**"Case of Strangulation of the Ileum in an Aperture of the Mesentery." LMG 38 (1846): 125; MT 14 (1846): 299-300; Lancet 2 (1846): 45. [abstract of JS's case presentation at the  Royal MedChirSoc on 23 June 1846]-

**"Alkalescent Urine, and Phosphatic Urinary Calculi." LMG 38 (1846): 852-53. [abstract of a paper read by JS at WMS on 7 Nov 1846. First meeting of the session, held in the rooms of the Ethnological Society, 27 Sackville Street. Large attendance; everyone pleased with comfort and accommodation in new place ]

"Case of Strangulation of the Ileum, from a Congenital Band of Fibres passing from the Appendix Cæci to the Mesentery." LMG 39 (1847): 75-76. [At mtg of WMS on 12 December, JS gives a reprise of paper delivered at MedChirSoc in June, plus expansion on comments at that medical society on 8 December. Then follows discussion]

"Apparatus for Inhaling the Vapour of Ether." LMG 39 (1847): 200; Lancet 1 (1847): 120-21.  [minutes of JS's presentation at WMS, 23 Jan 1847. Lancet article has illustration of the apparatues.]

""Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 158. [Three operations on 28 January, in which "the vapour of ether was administered in each case by Dr. Snow, by means of the inhaler described and depicted in our last number."]

"Operations without Pain." Lancet 1 (1847): 184. [Three operations on 4 February, "in which the vapour of ether was exhibited again by Dr. Snow, in the presence of Sir B. C. Brodie, Mr. Keate, and a numerous assembly of spectators. Apparatus slightly modified during previous week, under JS's direction, by the instrument maker, Mr. Ferguson. 13 February issue; additional case descriptions from the Middlesex (Bell's apparatus, described in Pharmaceutical Journal), King's (Hooper's), Cheltenham (bladder and tube) and a "modification of Snow's apparatus"), Royal Cornwall Infirmary (apparatus by a local medical man, "made under his direction"), and Essex and Colchester.

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 210. [20 February issue; two operations on 11 February. "Dr. Snow, who gave the ether in this and the following operation, placed his apparatus in water at 70°; but as soon as the operation of lithotomy was commenced, he partly turned the two-way tap, mentioned in our last, so as to reduce the vapour in the air respired from fifty to about twenty per cent., and the child [of four or five] breathed it thus diluted during the three or four minutes the operation continued. As soon as the stone was extracted, the mouth-piece was withdrawn, and the child instantly opened its eyes, and seemed revived." In the second operation, a mastectomy: "The woman inhaled for four minutes, when it was ascertained by Dr. Snow that the cap which admits air to the ether was not removed, and, consequently, she got no ether, and but little air. This was remedied, and she had the disadvantage of beginning the inhalation of ether rather out of breath. It excited some coughing, and in three or four minutes the face was becoming purple, and the pulse feeble and quick, and the features rather distorted. The inhalation was accordingly discontinued, and the operation commenced. She struggled and moaned during the operation; but at the termination of it, having recovered her faculties, she said that she had felt no pain whatever, and seemed in very high spirits.

"Mr. H. C. Johnson said that this patient laboured under bronchitis, and it had been a question whether the ether should be tried. He considered that it had somewhat disagreed with her, and that the bronchitis was the cause."  Hmmm!]

"Westminster Medical Society–13 February 1847." LMG 39 (1847): 383-85; Lancet 1 (1847): 227-28. [minutes of paper, "Observations on the Vapour of Ether, and its Application to Prevent Pain in Surgical Operations," read by JS. Ether vapor occupies space when mixed with air, but it does not produce insensibility by excluding oxygen from the air —> asphyxia since supplying displaced O2 did not counteract the effects of the vapor. Animal experiments, comparing asphyxia caused by a deficiency of O2 with effects of ether, which "allowed the blood to be changed from venous to arterial in the lungs, but probably interfered with the changes which take place in the capillaries of the system. He had ascertained that a little vapour of ether mixed with air would prevent the oxidation of phosphorous placed in it, and considered that it had a similar effect over the oxygen in the blood, and reduced to a minimum the oxidation of nervous and other tissues" (Lancet, 227). Then follows some comments suggestive of JS's concern for welfare of patients, and brief description of how to admin ether using his apparatus.]

"Westminster Medical Society–27 February 1847." LMG 39 (1847): 473; Lancet 1 (1847): 259. [ JS demonstrated application of ether to a linnet, followed by its recovery]

"Medical Intelligence–St. George's Hospital." LMG 39 (1847): 482-83. [12 march issue; reviews three operations on Thursday 25 February "in which the vapour of ether was administered by Dr. Snow with the effect of completely preventing pain" (482).]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 367-68. [3 April issue; begins with third operation on 25 Feb, left out of previous report, in which patient eventually died from phlebitis and abscess in lung. "It may be remarked here, that all the other patients to whom either has been given in St. George's Hospital, including those in the present report, have either recovered, or are recovering favourably; and that no ill consequences have in any case followed the use of ether. Besides the eighteen cases in which it has been administered by Dr. Snow, it has been given with complete success, by means of the same apparatus, in three operations that did not admit of being delayed till the operating day. . ." (367). Only one operation without ether at this hospital since 28 January. Then gives case descriptions of operations on 4 March: "In these, as in former operations, the vapour, which was given by Dr. Snow with an equal volume of air until insensibility was induced, was continued in a much more diluted state during the operations, and the patients were also allowed to take two or three inspirations of the external air, now and then, by the nostrils" (368). Two on Thursday 11 March. Three on 18 March, one on a "hard drinker. . . . The apparatus was placed in water at 70°, and he began to inhale through the wide tubes, three quarters of an inch in diameter, which Dr. Snow has now got to his apparatus, and at the end of four minutes he was quite insensible, lying quite passive, with limbs relaxed" (368).

"Westminster Medical Society–3 April 1847." LMG 39 (1847): 646-47; Lancet 1 (1847): 388-89. [ JS demonstrated "a small and very neat apparatus for the inhalation of ether" made by Mr. Ferguson.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 499-500. [8 May issue; reviews operations on 1, 8, 17 April. "Dr. Snow administered the ether in these cases, and the temperature of the water in which the instrument was placed was about 67° in the cases in which it is not mentioned; and, consequently, the proportions of vapour and of air were about equal up to the time the operations commenced. When the ether was continued during the operation, a more dilute vapour, usually about twenty per cent. to eighty of air, was given, and the patient was also allowed to take a few inspirations of air by the nostrils now and then" (500).]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 546. [22 May issue; amputation on 29 April by Mr. Cutler. "An artificial atmosphere, consisting of one part oxygen to three of air, was passed by Dr. Snow over the ether in the inhaler, which was kept at a temperature of about 67°, the intention being to supply the amount of oxygen displaced by the vapour. Before she had inhaled a minute, she was excited, and sobbed in an hysterical manner, and began to throw her arms about. The process was discontinued a minute and three-quarters from its commencement, and in a minute or two she was persuaded to open her mouth and begin to inhale again without the oxygen; she became insensible in three minutes, with less excitement than before, and her limb was removed without pain." 6 May: another amputation, this time "Dr. Snow administered the ether, using Mr. Sibson's face-piece, mentioned above [below, actually], which answered very well."]

"Operations without Pain. University College Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 546. [22 May issue; 3 May, "Two operations were performed by Mr. Liston, and the vapour of ether administered by Dr. Snow." In the lithotomy, "the operation was commenced four minutes and a half after he began to inhale, and did not cause the least sign of pain. . . . The patient inhaled during part of the operation the vapour more diluted with air than it had been before; he was rather excited for a minute or two during his recovery after the operation, but was soon quite collected. Fifteen drachms of ether were used in this case, and Dr. Snow had a fresh mouthpiece to his apparatus, which he said was invented by Mr. Sibson, of the Nottingham General Hospital. It was made of metal and covered with silk, in the form of a partial mask, and admitted of respiration both by the mouth and nostrils, the border of it contained pliable sheet lead, which could be moulded to the peculiarities of the features, and retained the form given to it. . . . Mr. Liston said that he had at one time doubts about the utility of the ether, but he had lately performed several operations in private, in which the ether had been given by Dr. Snow with perfect success, and he was inclined to modify his opinion. Dr. snow managed the ether better than he had previously seen it given."]

"Hospital Reports. University College Hospital." Lancet 1 (1847): 639. [19 June issue; 4 June, amputation by Liston. "Dr. Snow, who administered the ether, placed his apparatus in the cold water of the operating theater, which was 65°, and put into it two ounces of ether which was there, a quantity which generally suffices for an operation. The patient inhaled quietly, and the operation was commenced at the end of five minutes . . . . It was found soon after, that the ether was finished, and some one went to another part of the hospital for more; in the meantime, the incisions and directions preparatory to sawing the bones having been completed, the man began to complain, and Mr. Liston waited till he was rendered again insensible, which was in about a minute after inhalation was resumed . . . ." On 7 June, Mr. Quain performed lithotomy, followed by a Liston amputation. "The ether was given in this, as in the former case by Dr. Snow. This patient found the ether disagreeable, and wished to leave it off when partly under its influence, but with a little trouble she was partly persuaded and partly compelled to persevere, and soon became quite insensible . . . ."]

"Hospital Reports. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 2 (1847): 35. [10 July issue. Operations on 13, 20, 27 May; 3, 10, 17 June. "The vapour of ether was administered in all these cases by Dr. Snow. In the last two operations [amputation of a middle finger on 10 June, a thumb on 17 June] he used a face-piece, which he has altered from that described in the last report, and introduced two swing valves into it, to supersede the spherical valves he had previously used. The expiratory valve is made to be moved gradually at will from the opening it covers, so as to admit external air and supersede the two-way tap."]

"Westminster Medical Society--20 November 1847. LMG 40 (1847): 1030-31; Lancet 2 (1847): 575-76. [JS presents the results of auto-experiments on chloroform after learning of Dr. Simpson's use of the agent. Describes earliest administration, tests, how extracted from chloride of calcium given to him by the chemist, Mr. Bullock. Also gives a table on amount of chloroform held by air at various temperatures.]

 "Westminster Medical Society–27 November 1847." LMG 40 (1847): 1031-32; Lancet 2 (1847): 605-06. [discussion on chloroform was resumed after a paper on aneurism of the aorta.]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 2 (1847): 661. [18 December issue; mastectomy performed on 18 November. "The chloroform was administered by Dr. Snow with his ether apparatus." A lithotomy on 25 November, "Half a drachm of chloroform was sprinkled over a sponge squeezed out of cold water, and the sponge was applied by Dr. Snow over the mouth and nostrils." On the same day, a boy "inhaled the vapour of chloroform from the ether apparatus–the water-bath of the apparatus being at 60°." On 2 December, a girl "inhaled from the apparatus with the water-bath at 60°, a drachm of chloroform having been put in." After several minutes, "she made a wry face, and cried out a little. The chloroform was found to be all dried up; she had been inhaling only air the latter part of the time . . . ." On 9 December, a male laborer "inhaled chloroform from the apparatus, the water-bath being at 52°." Although Snow is not specifically mentioned as having administered in all cases, the report suggests so.]

"Operations without Pain. University College Hospital." Lancet 1 (1848): 25-26. [case discussion of operations in Nov & Dec, 1847, at which "chloroform was administered by Dr. Snow, with his ether apparatus."]

"Operations without Pain. St. George's Hospital." Lancet 1 (1848): 35-36. [Six cases at which JS administered anaesthetic, five of chloroform and one of benzin. One on 16 December 1847: "The chloroform was administered by Dr. Snow–a drachm of it being scattered over the interior of a hollow sponge, squeezed out of cold water. The sponge was applied over the mouth and nostrils [of a ten-month infant] . . . ."] In three cases on 23 December 1847, Snow used a "fresh apparatus" constructed by Misters Matthews and Ferguson (description given) to administer chloroform. On 30 December 1847, Snow used new apparatus to administer chloroform during an amputation and benzin during a second amputation. "Benzin had been previously used by Dr. Snow in four extractions of teeth in the hospital, and had succeeded perfectly in preventing pain, although it was not carried so far as to paralyze voluntary motion, for the patients sat upright, and held up their heads without support; but the action of it in the above case [the patient had convulsive tremors] was not considered sufficiently favourable to encourage its further use in important operations."]

"Westminster Medical Society–8 January 1848." LMG 41 (1848): 74-76. [Snow  read a paper, "Inhalation of Chloroform and Ether."]

"Royal Medico-Botanical Society–16 March 1848." LMG 41 (1848): 606-07; MT 17 (1847-48): 462-63; Lancet 1 (1848): 379. [Snow read a paper, "Chloroform and other narcotic Vapours." "He said that he considered the introduction of the use of ether vapour for the prevention of pain second only to vaccination in the direct benefits it conferred on mankind, and in the advantages it would confer on medical science second only to the discovery of the circulation of the blood. Chloroform was in some respects an improvement over ether, which, however, was the great discovery" (MT, 462). A bit further on: "He had examined a great number of volatile liquids, and he found that the power of all of them was in an inverse ratio to their solubility in water, and, consequently, in the blood; . . . The physiological strength of the vapours he had ascertained by inhaling small quantities himself, and by placing small animals in closed but capacious glass jars with proportions of vapour determined by weighing–a mode of investigation which he believed would lead to a knowledge of the modus operandi of these vapours" (Ibid.) Mentions use of "Turner's Chemistry" in preparing bichloride of carbon, which "he had given in three cases of tooth-drawing at St. George's Hospital. It produced the same effects as chloroform" but he did not recommend its use (463). Concludes with some explanations for why inhaling diluted chloroform will not bring a patient to the third degree, insensibility.]

Westminster Medical Society–29 April 1848. Lancet 1 (1848): 523. [Snow read a paper, "On Narcotism by the Inhalation of Vapours."]

"Westminster Medical Society–23 December 1848." Lancet 1 (1849): 15. [mention that Snow read a paper, "The Use of Chloroform in Midwifery"; summation of opening remarks, at least, in LMG 43 (1849): 208-10; Lancet 1 (1849): 99-100] "Chloroform in Parturition." LJM 1 (1849): 976. [another view of JS's presentation on 23 December]

"Westminster Medical Society–6 and 13 January 1849." LMG 43 (1849): 208-10; Lancet 1 (1849): 99-100. [discussion of Snow's paper, "Chloroform in Midwifery."]

"Westminster Medical Society–31 March 1849." LMG 43 (1849): 692-95;  Lancet I (1849):402-04. [Snow read a paper, "Death from Chloroform: means to be employed to prevent a fatal effect from an over-dose."]

"Westminster Medical Society–19 May 1849." LMG 43 (1849):957-58; Lancet 1 (1849):588-90. [JS's demonstrated a "New Apparatus for Chloroform."]

"Western Literary Institution–4 October 1849." Lancet 2 (1849): 413. ["Lecture on the Causes and Prevention of Cholera" that Snow delivered on Thursday 4 October; brief synopsis, with water-borne communication not stressed]

"Westminster Medical Society–13 and 20 October 1849." LMG 44 (1849): 730-32; Lancet 2 (1849):431-33; LJM 1 (1849): 1077-84. [summation of Snow's paper, "On the Pathology and Mode of Communication of Cholera"; Lancet and LJM more complete on the discussion; LJM shows that discussion continued on 20 Oct. The Lancet report says that Swayne from Bristol was present and that "the interest regarding the discussion of cholera continues unabated. The rooms of the Society this evening, were crowded to excess. . . . The discussion on Dr. Webster's paper was postponed, by consent, until Dr. Snow had read his paper" (431).]

Westminster Medical Society. LJM 2 (1850) : 602. [JS exhibits an apparatus for detecting the presence of chloroform at mtg of 11 May]

"Inhaling Apparatus." LMG 46 (1850): 1026. [JS exhibited apparatus at meeting of Medical Society of London, 30 November]

"Inhalation of the Vapour of Medicinal Substances." Lancet 2 (1850): 637-38. [appears to be same as the session described above in LMG on 30 November, but a different set of minutes]

"An Enlarged Heart." LMG 46 (1850): 1028. [JS exhibited heart at meeting of Medical Society of London, 7 December] At same meeting, JS also comments on therapeutic use of chloroform; Lancet 2 (1850): 678-79.

"Epidemiological Society." MT 2 (1851): 54. [mtg of 6 January, where Alexander Bryson read a paper on Cholera; Snow commented.]

"Inhalation of Medicines." LMG 47 (1851): 124. [JS described variety of apparatus at meeting of Medical Society of London, 11 January; also in Lancet. ]

"On the Inhalation of Various Medicinal Substances." MT 2 (1851): 105. [abstract of paper read by JS at mtg of MSL; may be same as prior reference on "Inhalation of Medicines"]

"On the Mode of Propagation of Cholera." LMG 47 (1851): 1050-51. [abstract of paper read by JS at meeting of the Epidemiological Society, 2 June (sic)]

Epidemiological Society. MT 3 (1851): 522-24. [overview of events; says JS read a paper "On the Mode of Propagation of Cholera" at two meetings, 5 May and 3 June]

"Hypertrophy of the kidney." Lancet 2 (1851): 540-41. [minutes of a presentation by JS at Medical Society of London meeting, 22 November]

"The cause and prevention of death from chloroform." Lancet 1 (1852): 248-49; MTG 4 (1852): 253-54. [minutes of paper read by JS at 21 February meeting of Med. Soc. London; entire paper pub in LJM 4 (1852)]

Medical Society of London. Lancet I (1853): 253-54; MTG 6 (1853): 282-83; AMJ 1 (1853): 218. [Abstract of JS's CMC oration, delivered at the 80th anniversary meeting of the society on Tuesday 8 March, 5:00 o'clock, with dinner following at 7:00. ]

** "On the comparative mortality of large towns and rural districts, and the causes by which it is influenced." MTG 6 (1853): 561; AMJ 1 (1853): 404.. [paper read by JS at Monday 2 May meeting of Epidemiological Society. "The shorter average duration of life in large towns, as compared with rural districts, depends on the greater mortality in early childhood, and the smaller number of adults who attain to old age." N.B. Mike–JS suspended tables, compiled from the 9th Ann. Report of the Reg Gen, in the room where the Epi soc met. Conclusion: "The above circumstances show that the high mortality which prevails in most large towns is caused more by the habits and occupations of the people, than by the mere fact of their living in towns."–which could be heard by some as an emphasis on contingent factors/predisposing causes.]

"On the Modus Operandi of Narcotico-irritants. Lancet 2 (1853): 586; MTG 7 (1853): 641-42; AMJ 1 (1853): 1114-15. [paper read by JS at 14 December meeting of Physiology Section of the MSL, which met on Monday evenings. While JS argues that all narcotics are irritants, he disagrees that they are stimulants (which would not rule out chloroform for treatments of cholera by those who show stimulants are dangerous–albeit JS makes no reference to this). The diminished oxidation argument, with clear references to animal exp., post-mortem examinations, and microscopic observations (although not clear if done by him or Alison, Reid, etc.). Does admit to use of small amounts of wine or opium for patients in state of debility. Mentions exp on goldfishes to compare poisonous effects of urea with carbonate of ammonia.]

"The Principles on Which the Treatment of Cholera Should Be Based."  The Lancet 1 (1854): 109 [summation of paper read at Med Soc London, 21 January 1854; in MTG 8 (1854): 98-99, the person who took minutes paraphrases JS saying that "as the [cholera] poison is organic, and therefore probably cellular . . ."]

"On the Production of Local Anæsthesia." Lancet I (1854): 450; MTG 8 (1854): 418. [JS read paper with this title at a meeting of the Physiological Society on Monday 10 April; he's also listed as the VP, and reference made JS's medical experimentation on animals; Bernard mentioned]

"Difficult parturition in the lower animals." MTG 8 (1854): 555-56. [JS exhibited three guinea pigs and discussed this subject.]

"Cholera and Impure Water." MTG 9 (1854): 420-21. [editorial that applauds JS's researches "without adopting the views of Dr. Snow"; does say he has shown that mortality from cholera is "directly affected by the purity of water."]

Epidemiological Society. MTG 9 (1854): 529-30. [mtg of 6 Nov., where JS comments on house-to-house visitation by physicians during the Br. St. epidemic; thought efficacy overrated.]

Epidemiological Society. Lancet 2 (1854): 530-31; MTG 9 (1854): 629. [At meeting on Monday 4 December, JS presented a map of St. Anne and St. James parishes, showing mortality from cholera in Sept/Oct; MTG report also states he displayed a table of mortality.]

"On the immediate cause of coma and insensibility." Lancet 2 (1854): 530; MTG 9 (1854): 626-27. [Abstract of paper that JS read at 11 Dec meeting of the Physiological Society]

Review of Mode of Communication of Cholera, 2nd ed (1855). MTG 10 (1855): 91-92.

John Snow's Testimony before the Select Committee on Public Health [?? check], 5 March 1855. Reprinted in British Parliamentary Papers. Vol. 8. Shannon, Ireland: Irish University Press, 1970.

Medical Society of London. Lancet I (1855): 289-92; MTG 10 (1855): 293. [JS elected President for the coming session at the anniversary meeting on 8 March; delivers Presidential address on the 10th–Herschellian notion of the advancement of sciences; thinks medicine is now ready to take its place as a science due to progress of the collateral sciences, esp. chemistry and physiology. Encourages support of the Society's monthly meetings of the Physiology section since "physiology is the basis of both pathology and therapeutics."]

Epidemiological Society. MTG 10 (1855): 476-78. [mtg on 2 April, at which there was a paper on fever in Cowbridge, South Wales; JS believes source was "morbid poison" perhaps "taken into the alimentary canal."]

Medical Society of London. MTG 10 (1855): 446. [at mtg of 21 April, someone asked if "any amount of sewer poison . . . could generate a specific disease?" JS "did not believe that the contents of sewers generated the disease, but that they communicated it."]

"The Propagation of Cholera through the Medium of Water." MTG 10 (1855): 556. [JS began reading a paper by this title at a meeting of the Epidemiological Society on Monday 7 May; did not finish before concluding time of meeting, so reading would continue at next meeting.][?? Not sure if this is correct, or a different title for paper at Epi Soc on 4 June. Trans of Epi Soc for 1855 indicates that paper on 4 May was on bowel diseases in the Crimea, and not by JS]

"On the Communication of Cholera through the Medium of Water."JPH&SR 1 (1855), Transactions, 51; Lancet 2 (1855): 10-12. [summation of a paper Snow read at the Epidemiological Society, 4 June 1855; synopsis of his South London study, with Br. St. lumped together with Horsleydown (in a minor reference) as an instance of local contamination of a common source of water. Dr. Greenhow, Tucker, and Whitehead were amongst the discussants. In JPH&SR 2 (1856), Transactions 74, the title is "The Propagation . . ."]

Review of On Epidemic Diarrhœa and Cholera; their Pathology and Treatment, with a Record of Cases, by George Johnson. MTG 10 (1855): 629-31.

Review of JS, "A Letter to the Right Honourable Sir Benjamin Hall, Bart., President of the General Board of Health." MTG 11 (1855): 193-94. [issue of 25 August]

** "Further Remarks on the Cause and Prevention of Death from Chloroform." MTG 12 (1856): 124-25; AMJ 4 (1856): 94;  JPH&SR 2 (1856): 29. [second of two papers read at MSL on 26 Jan; the other was "Chloroform in Midwifery, by E. Smith. JS' paper was a sustained argument against views of Dr. Black, of Barts, that deaths attributed to chloroform were mainly due to asphyxia. JS's researches, many on animals, and evaluation of cases shows extended study of the problem of asphyxia–and may be the context for his remarks (at WMS on 21 Oct 48) comparing internal congestion produced by cholera to asphyxia]

"On the Employment of Chloroform in Surgical Operations." Lancet 2 (1855): 366-67. [Minutes of JS's paper read at the MSL on 13 October (reprinted in full elsewhere in journal), plus discussion. Also reported in MTG 11 (1855): 403-04]

"On the Vapour of Amylene." Lancet 1 (1857): 63-65. [paper read by JS at 10 January meeting of MSL; mentions experiments on animals; BWR says he's observed three cases where JS admin amylene.]

"The Vapour of Amylene as an Anaesthetic." BMJ (1857): 53.  [paper read by JS at 10 January meeting of MSL; same as in Lancet, but different title given]

"Chloride of Amyle." Lancet I (1857): 479. [At meeting of MSL on [??, JS exhibited a specimen of chloride of amyle he had made. Shows that he read Annales de Chimie. Studying its properties for causing "insensibility." Concludes by saying a specimen of same exhibited in Edinburgh "was not so in reality."

"Outbreak of Cholera at West Ham." BMJ (1857): 913. [transcript of JS's presentation at 17 October meeting of [??; note Lankester's response. Issue of 31 Oct.]

"Drainage and Water Supply, in Connexion with the Public Health." BMJ (1858): 153. [paper read at 11 Feb meeting of Epi Soc; in 20 Feb issue. According to SR&JPH 4 (1858), Transactions, 45, the title was "On the Influence of Drainage and Water Supply on Public Health."]

Advertisement in MTG for On Chloroform and other Anæsthetics: Their Action and Administration. MTG 17 (1858): ??. [16 October issue]

Review of On Chloroform and Other Anæsthetics. BMJ (1858): 1047-49. [anonymous reviewer; issue of 18 December.